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Book -r4 

Copyright N^__ 







MACMILLAN & CO., Limited 




Photo hy " IrtCTrntioial" 

Author and Naturalist 

John Burroughs 
Making maple sugar on his eighty-third birthday 





•flew l^orft 


All rights reserved 





Copyright, 1921, 
By the M ACM ill an COMPANY. 

Set up and electrotyped. Published November, 1921 

NOV 30 1921 

J. S. Gushing Co. — Berwick & Smith Co. 
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. 






This book aims to be of positive, practical value 

1. In helping the pupil to develop within himself the 
power to understand, use correctly, and appreciate the 
mother tongue. 

2. In contributing, through individual and group in- 
vestigations and reports of community activities, to the 
making of sturdy, competent American citizens. 

3. In giving the pupil a feeling of self-reliance based 
upon the knowledge that he has done his own research 
work and thought questions through for himself. 

4. In providing group exercises in which the pupil 
becomes a critic of his own work and that of his classmates. 

5. In drawing little distinction between school and 
out-of-school activities. 

6. In suggesting a sufficient number of purposeful 
activities to interest every pupil in the class. 

7. In making it unnecessary for the teacher to make 
such a statement as, *'It may not appear useful to you now, 
but it will be extremely valuable to you in after life." 

8. In helping the pupil to form proper mental habits 
by uninterrupted attention to one undertaking at a time. 

9. In giving the pupil a more intimate acquaintance 
with his environment. 

10. In providing an incentive for good English outside 
the schoolroom. 




This book is designed for use in the grammar grades 
and in junior high schools. Each Undertaking is a com- 
plete unit in itself and is in the highest possible degree 
independent of the other Undertakings. In each unit the 
first activity, in one of its several forms, should be worked 
out by each pupil. Additional similar projects may be 
undertaken if interest warrants and time permits. 

The method of this book needs little comment or ex- 
planation. The book has been written for the pupils and 
the Undertakings have been presented in simple, concise 
fashion. The subject matter is organized in nineteen 
comprehensive units which provide a far greater amount 
of suggested material than any one teacher or class can" 
possibly use. This freedom of choice affords a variety of 
work which would otherwise be impossible. 

Furthermore, local conditions and experience are em- 
phasized to such an extent that the problem of what to 
say proves no longer troublesome, and undivided atten- 
tion may be given to how to say it. Home industries, 
home government, public utilities, and local history form 
the means by which the work of the Enghsh class is almost 
automatically correlated with that in other subjects. 
Introductory talks and questions serve as guides to the 
pupil. The play spirit, so large a part of the home and 
outdoor life of the pupil, is made a salient feature of the 
classroom activity. Hence there is no lost energy and 
no mind-wandering. Indeed, in almost every Undertaking 
the pupil loses sight of the fact that he is gaining knowledge, 
because of his interest in the results. 

The paragraph has been made the subject of special 
study ; and letter-writing, the making of reports, memory 



training, the use of reference books, telephone conversa- 
tions, verse-making, dramatization, and the study of 
literary masterpieces have received much attention. Pro- 
vision has been made for only enough technical grammar 
to furnish a touchstone by which the pupil is able to under- 
stand what he reads and to correct his own faulty habits 
of speech. 

This book is the direct outcome of five years of experience 
in the teaching and supervision of English by the project 
method. Each of the Undertakings has been tested many 
times in various English classes. 

M. B. F. 


The author makes grateful acknowledgment to the 
following publishers and authors for permission to use 
copyright material : to Henry Holcomb Bennett and The 
Youth's Companion for The Flag Goes By; to Katharine 
Lee Bates and T. Y. Crowell Company for America the 
Beautiful; to Samuel Arthur Derieux and The American 
Magazine for the excerpt from The Smartest Animals We 
Know; to The Macmillan Company for selections from 
American History for Grammar Schools by Marguerite 
Stockman Dickson, for the play James Wolfe from His- 
torical Plays for Children by Bird and Starling, and for 
the letter from Charles Kingsley; to The Ladies' Home 
Journal for the editorial The Lip-Lazy American; to 
Joseph C. Lincoln and D. Apple ton & Co. for the 
extract from Shavings; to The Review of Reviews 
Company for the letter from Phillips Brooks to Canon 
Farrar ; and to various individuals and historical societies 
for permission to use hitherto unpublished letters. 

The selection by Vice-President Calvin Coolidge from 
Have Faith in Massachusetts and the description of the 
June day from The Vision of Sir Launfal by James Russell 
Lowell are used by permission of and by special arrange- 
ment with Houghton MifHin Company, the authorized 
publishers of these works. The author is similarly in- 
debted to Rudyard Kipling, to A. P. Watt & Son of 


xii Acknowledgments 

London, and to Doubleday, Page & Co. for //; and to 
Charles Scribner's Sons for America for Me by Henry Van 
Dyke, and for The Griffin and the Minor Canon by Frank 
R. Stockton. 

The inaugural address of President A. Lawrence Lowell 
of Harvard University is reprinted by special permission. 
Grateful acknowledgment is also due Dr. S. J. Slawson, 
Superintendent of Schools, Bridgeport, Connecticut, and 
Miss Mary Rosa for help in the preparation of the first 
draft of the manuscript ; and to Dr. Henry P. Emerson, 
author of Modern English and English Spoken and Written^ 
for careful reading of the manuscript and for many helpful 



Part I. Letter-Writing i 

Friendly letters 2 

Greetings . 3 

Accompanying gifts 5 

Travel letters 6 

Thanks for gifts 7 

Invitations 8 

Thanks to hostess 9 

Sympathy 10 

Business letters 11 

Orders 14 

Receipts 15 

Complaints 15 

Adjustments 16 

Applications 16 

Answers to advertisements 17 

Letter of instructions 19 

Telegrams 21 

Fast day messages 22 

Day letters 22 

Night letters 23 

Cablegram 23 

Part IL The Making of Booklets 37 

The individual booklet 37 

The class booklet 51 

The class scrapbook . . . , . , . .51 

The class anthology 51 



Table of Contents 

Part III. Oral and Written Reports 

In paragraph form .... 
Reports upon public utilities 
Reports upon city governmept . 

In outline form ..... 

Report on subjects looked up in reference books 
Report on material collected for a biographical sketch 
Report on material collected for an historical sketch 
Part IV. The Use of Reference Books 

Dictionary . 


Table of contents 

Index .... 

General magazine index 

Gazetteer . 

Atlas .... 

Card catalogue . 

Who's Who 

Congressional Directory 

Reference Almanac 
Part V. Posters and Charts 
Part VI. Class Parliamentary Usage 

What to do 

How to do it 
Part VII. Notebooks 
Part VIII. The Bulletin Board 
Part IX. Oral and Written Dramatization 
Part X. Memory Training . 

Memory contests 

Selections to be memorized 

Quotations .... 
Part XI. Games and Contests 

Grammar baseball 

Spelling contests 

Paragraph archery contest . 

Table of Contents 


An essay contest 
Prize speaking contest 

American authors 
Word contests . 
Booklet contests 
Poster contests . 
Memory contests 
Part XII. Telephone Conversations 
Part XIII. The Short Speech 
Speeches for various occasions 

Speech of introduction 

Speech of presentation 

Speech of acceptance 

Responses to toasts 

Announcements . 

Speech of welcome 

Speech of farewell 

Part XIV. The Class Museum 

Part XV. Campaigns 
Public health 
Protection of birds 
Safety First 
Clean Up . 
Victory drive for better English 

Part XVI. Verse-Making . 
Illustrated booklet of rhymes 
Class or school song . 
Verses for special occasions 

Part XVII. Diaries . 

Part XVIII. The Class Publication 
Preparation of manuscript 
Correction of proof . 

xvi Table of Contents 


News stories . . . ' 231 

The school print shop 236 

Products of the shop 236 

Activities of the shop 237 

Part XIX. The Study of a Literary Masterpiece . 240 

Evangeline 241 

Rip Van Winkle 244 

Courtship of Miles Standish 246 

The Lady of the Lake . 249 




What do you think is the value of learning to write? 
Only a few of you will ever earn your living by writing 
stories and magazine articles. To most of you the chief 
value of learning to express yourself well on paper will 
be to enable you to write a simple, clear, and interesting 
letter. In fact, all of us — whatever our age or position 
in life — have to write letters, and the majority of us never 
write anything else. 

How many letters do you suppose that you have already 
written? Probably a great many. Yet you may be sur- 
prised to learn that four million letters are received and 
dehvered every day in the New Y'ork City post office alone, 
and twelve thousand employees are required to handle its 
fifteen million pieces of ordinary mail. These stupendous 
figures will help you to realize how great a part the writing 
of letters plays m American life. 

As you grow older you will be called upon to write letters 
more and more frequently, and upon the character of these 
letters many of the important interests of your life will 
depend. Social relations, business matters, absence from 
friends, all demand that letters be written with clearness, 
courtesy, and common sense. 

In Part I of this book you will be asked to collect all the 
correspondence necessary in connection with a long journey 

2 Community English 

to a place you really wish to visit. After you have collected 
the letters, notes, and telegrams you are to arrange them in a 
booklet. Since you are not to show this Httle book to your 
teacher until it is finished and since no opportunity wiil 
be given you to 'Mo it over," you will wish to have it as 
nearly correct as possible before you hand it in. For this 
reason, you may be glad to read over the following sugges- 
tions and letters before you begin to plan your journey. 

Suggestions. -^ Read the following suggestions carefully ; 
they may help you to write correct and complete letters. 

1. Use unlined white paper and black ink. 

2. Leave a one inch margin at the left of your paper. 

3. Indent the first line of each paragraph. 

4. Write neatly, carefully, and plainly. Dot your i's 
and cross your t's. Avoid making such a remark at the 
end of your letter as '' Excuse this scrawl." 

5. Spell correctly. If you are uncertain about the 
speUing of words, consult the dictionary. 

6. Punctuate correctly. 

7. Stick to the point in business letters. Omit un- 
necessary details. 

8. In going from page to page of your paper, follow 
the regular order ; first, second, third, etc. 

9. Avoid postscripts. 

10. Read over your letter carefully before putting it 
into the envelope. 

Personal Letters 

Your first real need for knowing how to write generally 
comes when you write to your family or friends. Such 
messages are called either personal letters or /r^'^w^/}' letters. 

Letter Writing 3 

Specimen letters. — There are many different kinds of 
personal letters, since messages to friends may treat of 
almost any subject. Some of the most common types of 
personal letters are given in this chapter. 

A Letter of Greeting ^ 

Here is an interesting letter from a great American 
naturahst and author, John Burroughs. Give your 
reasons for believing it to be a friendly letter. 

West Park, New York 
March 26, 1915 
Dear Miss Buchanan, 

A good many schools beside yours are reminding me that I 
am to have a birthday on April third. Of course it is a pleasure 
for me to be remembered by so many young people and I wish 
I could say something to them all that would keep them as young 
as I am, nearing seventy-eight. I am sure I could lead any of 
them up any mountain in this state this side of the Adirondacks 
and feel none the worse for it. 

The secret of youth in old age is temperance in all things and 
love for all things that are good and fair, not forgetting your 
fellow men. If I had used tobacco or alcoholic drinks or even 
tea and coffee, I am sure my step would not be as elastic as it 
is now. To use and not abuse the gift of life is the great secret. 
Good luck to you all. 

Very sincerely, 

John Burroughs 

As you read over the above letter you will note that what 
it says is of even greater importance than the manner in 
which it is said. ' Unfortunately, no one can tell you what 

^ This is a hitherto unpubHshed letter. 

4 Community English 

to say ; that must grow out of your own heart and mind. 
In a personal letter, however, anything that interests you 
is likely to prove of interest to some one else. A chatty 
letter, full of news, is almost always one which gives pleas- 
ure. It is, therefore, a good plan when writing to a friend 
to think not of yourself but of him. What you do — at 
home, at school, at play — these are the things which you 
know most about and which will prove most interesting 
to your friends. What can you learn of John Burroughs' 
Hfe from his letter ? Did he write about things which espe- 
cially interested him? 

A Letter of Christmas Greeting 

Letters of greeting are often written upon special occa- 
sions. Here is such a letter from the great American 
Bishop, Phillips Brooks, to the noted English clergyman 
and author, Canon Frederic William Farrar. Observe 
how natural the letter is. Can you not imagine that 
Bishop Brooks is talking instead of writing? 

233 Clarendon Street, Boston 
Tuesday, December 13, 1892 
My dear Archdeacon, 

It is partly that I want to send you Christmas greeting, and 
partly that I need your sympathy to-day when I am fifty-seven 
years old — for these two reasons and a hundred others I am going 
to fill these four pages with talk with you across the water. 

In the midst of a thousand useless things which I do every 
day there is always coming up the recollection of last summer, 
and how good you were to me, and what enjoyment I had in 
those delightful idle days. Never shall I cease to thank you 
for taking me to Tennyson's, and letting me see the great dear 

Letter Writing 5 

man again. How good he was that day ! Do you remember 
how he read those two stanzas about "Faith," which he had 
just written ? I can hear his great voice booming in them as I 
read them over in the new volume which has come since the 
poet died. . . . And Whittier, too, is gone. He never forgot 
the visit which you paid him, nor ceased to speak of it when- 
ever I saw him. But how strange it seems, this writing against 
one friend's name after another that you will see his face no 
more. I pray you to live, for to come to London and not see 
you there — what should I care for the old places, St. Margaret's, 
and the Abbey, and the Dean's Yard, and all the rest? 

I hope that you are very well and happy. Do not let the 
great world trouble you, but be sure that many are rejoicing in 
your brave work. 

Oh, that you were here to-night ! With all best Christmas 
wishes for Mrs. Farrar and you and your children, 

I am, affectionately your friend, 

PhilHps Brooks 

Do you think that the references to people add to the 
attractiveness of this letter? Name at least three poems 
written by " the great dear man " mentioned in this letter. 

A Letter Accompanying a Gift ^ 
In this letter written by the beloved poet, Henry W. 
Longfellow, the most valuable gifts in the world are de- 
scribed. What are they? 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 
February 20, 1876 
Dear Miss Dalton, 

I am much gratified and touched by your kind letter, and 
hasten to say how much pleasure it has given me. 
^ This is a hitherto unpublished letter. 

6 Community English 

I do not imagine that any writer can be indifferent to the im- 
pression his writings produce on the minds and hearts of his 
readers. Certainly I am not. It always makes me happy to 
know that any words of mine have given pleasure and comfort 
to any one ; and I thank you for saying that you have found 
pleasure and comfort in them. 

My publisher has taken a fancy to issue a series of very small 
volumes, one of which I send you by this post. It is a mere 
trifle ; but I hope you will be kind enough to accept it, with my 
kind regards and good wishes. I sometimes think that gifts 
of no value are the most valuable. They show the good will 
of the giver, which is always the best part of any gift. 

When you see the tiny book you will smile at this long preface 
to it! 

With kind regards, 

Yours very truly, 

H. W. Longfellow 

What was Mr. Longfellow's attitude toward Miss Dalton? 
What can you learn about the author through his discussion 
of gifts and their value? How many different parts are 
there in this letter? 

A Travel Letter 

In this delightful letter from Charles Kingsley to his 
young son, the author of Water Babies and Westward Hoi 
thought not of himself but of his Httle boy. Why do you 
think this letter would interest a young child? 

My dear Uttle Man, 

I was quite dehghted to get a letter from you so nicely written. 
Yesterday I went by the railway to a most beautiful place where 

Letter Writing 7 

I am staying now. A town with an old castle, hundreds of 
years old, where the great King Henry the Fourth of France was 
born, and his cradle is still there, made of tortoise-shell. Under- 
neath the castle are beautiful walks and woods — all green as 
if it were summer, and roses and flowers, and birds singing — 
but different from our English birds. But it is quite summer 
here because it is so far south. Under the castle, by the river, 
are frogs that make a noise like a rattle, and frogs that bark 
like toy-dogs, and frogs that climb up trees, and even up the 
window-panes — they have suckers on their feet and are quite 
green like a leaf. Far away, before the castle, are the great 
mountains, ten thousand feet high, covered with snow, and the 
clouds crawling about their tops. I am going to see them to- 
morrow, and when I come back I will tell you. But I have 
been out to-night, and all the frogs are croaking still and making 
a horrid noise. Mind and be a good boy and give nurse my 
love. There is a vulture here in the inn, but he is a little 
Egyptian vulture, not like the great vulture I saw at Bayonne. 
Ask mother to show you his picture in the beginning of the bird 
book. He% called Neophia Egyptiacus, and is an ugly fellow, 
who eats dead horses and sheep. There is his picture. 

Your own daddy, 

C. Kingsley 

Where is Pau ? What mountains could be seen from the 
castle? Why was the weather in Pau warmer than that 
in England? 

Letter of Thanks ^ 

John Greenleaf Whittier, the Quaker poet, wrote the 
following letter to a young girl who had thanked him for 
the pleasure which his poems had given her. Account, if 
you can, for the great charm of this letter. 

^ This letter has never before been published. 

8 Community English 

Amesbury, Massachusetts 
I Month 5, 1876 
My dear friend, 

For so, judging by thy letter, I may call thee, I am heartily 
glad that any words of mine have been blessed to the comforting 
of thyself and thy father. It is a great happiness to feel that 
I have not written altogether in vain. 

Thou art quite right in thinking that I should have gladly 
welcomed thee had thy steps been led to this region. Happy 
would I be if I had, like thy father, a loving daughter. But it is 
providentially otherwise, and I have many blessings to be thank- 
ful for. Dear friends send me their messages of love, almost 
with every mail, and although in impaired health, I am happier 
than I deserve to be. 

Accept my thanks for thy kind letter, and my best wishes for 
thy happiness, here and hereafter, and believe me truly and 
sincerely thy friend, 

John G. Whittier 

How did Mr. Whittier's method of dating a letter differ 
from the modern method of writing the date? In what 
month did he write the letter? What does this letter tell 
you of the poet's love for children? What are four of his 
best known poems ? 

A Letter of Invitation ^ 

This letter by the author of Thanatopsis and many other 
poems was written to an old friend. Do you think the 
writer really wished to see his friend ? 

^ This is a hitherto unpublished letter. 

Letter \\>iting 9 

New York 
January 28, 1876 
My dear friend, 

New York is pleasanter than usual this winter. We have had 
no snow and no ice in the streets, and a good many sunshiny 
days. Now that the days are growing longer and — I was going 
to say that there is a chance that the streets may continue free 
from ice and snow — but who can tell ? — will you not be 
tempted to come to New York and bring your better half? 
You shall have your old quarters in this house, and take your 
cigar when in the humor without being in anybody's way, and 
we will talk over Lucretius when you have nobody else to talk 
to, or are not running about town after your old friends, who 
will be for tearing you in pieces when you come, as they alwa}'s 

Yours very truly, 

William Cullen Bryant 

How does the phrase used in the complimentary ending 
of this letter differ from the complimentary endings of the 
preceding letters? In what way was New York unusually 
pleasant during the winter of 1876? 

A Letter of Thanks to a Hostess 

After visiting at any one's home it is customary to write 
a cordial note or letter of thanks to the hostess. Such a 
letter is frequently referred to as a bread and butter letter 
and should be.wTitten as soon as possible after the \dsit is 
over. The following letter was written by a young man 
to his cousin. 

lo Community English 

New York City 
September 30, 1920 
My dear Cousin, 

I have waited a disgracefully long time, I know, before writing 
to tell you what a bright spot in a dull and humdrum existence 
that week was that I spent at your delightful place by the sea- 
shore. The work that piled up at the office while I was playing 
in the sand and boating on the lagoon has, I am afraid, made 
me seem forgetful of your many kindnesses. Yet I am not 
afraid of seeming ungrateful, for I know that you are one of 
those friendly souls with whom I can begin where I left off in 
either a letter or a visit. 

When next summer comes around, and you invite me out 
there again (as you always have and I hope always will), 
I can tell you about the many interesting affairs of the office and 
the city. Yet I probably shan't, at that, for I am sure that 
once again the noisy haunts of men will seem remote and un- 
important, and the only questions that will interest us will be 
when the tide is high and what are the prospects of a favoring 

Cordially and gratefully yours, , 


Why do you think the hostess would be glad to receive 
such a letter ? In what way did Fred indicate that he had 
had a delightful visit? 

A Letter of Sympathy 

You may be interested to know what Colonel Theodore 
Roosevelt said of the following letter. " The mother of 
whom Lincoln wrote stood in one sense on a loftier plane 
of patriotism than the mighty President himself. Her 
memory, and the memory of her sons whom she bore for the 
Union, should be kept green in our minds ; for she aad 

Letter Writing 1 1 

they in life and death, t3rpified all that is best and highest 
in our national existence. The deed itself, and the words 
of the great man which commemorate that deed, should 
form one of those heritages for all Americans which it is of 
inestimable consequence that America should possess." 

Executive Mansion 
Washington, Nov. 21, 1864 
To Mrs. Bixby, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Madam : I have been shown in the files of the War De- 
partment a statement of the Adjutant General of Massachusetts, 
that you are the mother of five sons who have died gloriously 
on the field of battle. I feel how weak and fruitless must be 
any word of mine which should attempt to beguile you from 
the grief of a loss so overwhelming. But I cannot refrain from 
tendering to you the consolation that may be found in the 
thanks of the Republic they died to save. I pray that our 
Heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereave- 
ment, and leave you only the cherished memory of the loved 
and lost, and the solemn pride that must be yours to have laid 
so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of freedom. 

Yours very sincerely and respectfully, 

A. Lincoln 

Give your reasons for believing that this is a friendly or 
personal letter, although President Lmcoln did not know 
Mrs. Bixby. 

Business Letters 

You will remember that in personal letters considerable 
attention is paid to the form in which the message is written. 
Business letters need to be worded even more carefully 
than letters written to relatives and friends, because greater 
interests are usually at stake. Here the " three C's " — 


Community English 

clearness, courtesy, and common sense, are of vital impor- 
tance. Carelessness in the matter of form produces an 
unfavorable impression. Custom sanctions several forms 
of business letters, any one of which is correct. The 
following diagram sets forth one of these permitted forms : 


or Salu- 

67 Adams Street 

Ida Parkway, Georgia 
December 10, 1920 
Mr. John Brown 
29 Otis Road 
Warren, Ohio 

Dear Sir : 

Very truly youis. 


Body of 



The superscription. — The address on the envelope, or 
the superscription, is written in the same way as the address 
found within the letter. The name of the writer ought also 
to be indicated. It is generally written in the upper left- 
hand corner of the envelope. At the New York City post 
ofhce last year there were 9,696,243 dead letters, and 79,000 

Letter Writing 13 

parcels without any address whatever. Not one of these 
pieces of mail bore the address of the sender. More- 
over, to trace and correct addresses on misdirected mail in 
New York City alone, the Government spent $100,000.00. 
The postmaster of that city says, '' Thousands of errors 
could be avoided if people would address their letters with 
the name of the town and state as well as the name of the 
addressee Written Out in Full." The street and 
number should also be placed on each letter, as indicated 
by the following examples : 

Keturn after Five Days to 


Boston, Massachusetts 

Miss Helen Merrill 
54 Oak Road 

Buffalo, New York 

Huntington Cliambers, Copley Square 
Boston 17, Mass. 

Mr. John Brown 

29 Otisville Road 

14 Community English 

Does the first line of the address come above or below 
the middle of the envelope? Is the address centered on 
the envelope or is it written at one side? Why is there a 
comma after the word Bujffalo on the first envelope but no 
comma after the word Cleveland on the second envelope ? 

Specimen letters. — Read over the following business 
letters and note carefully these points : 

1. Are the letters clear? 

2. Is the entire heading written upon a single line in any 
of the letters ? 

3. Is the appearance of the letter improved by making 
the right and left hand margins nearly equal? 

4. Is it customary to leave as much white space below 
the letter as at the sides? 

5. Are all paragraphs in a letter indented the same 
distance from the margin? 

6. When a letter of complaint is received why is it good 
business to send a courteous letter of adjustment in reply? 

An Order 

54 Oak Road 
Buffalo, New York 
October 20, 1920 
The Youth's Companion 
881 Commonwealth Avenue 
Boston, Massachusetts 
Dear Sirs : 

Please send the "Youth's Companion" to me for one year, 
beginning with the January numbers. I am inclosing a postal 
money order to pay for my subscription. 

Very truly yours, 

(Miss) Helen Merrill 

Letter Writing 15 

A Receipt 


November 16, 1920 


Boston, Massachusetts 

Miss Helen Merrill 
54 Oak Road 

Buffalo, New York 
Dear Madam : 

Your letter, inclosing postal money order for subscription to 
''The Youth's Companion" for one year, has been received. 
If you do not receive your first copy promptly, kindly inform 
us of the fact. 

Very truly yours, 

The Youth's Companion 

A Letter of Complaint or Claim Letter 

54 Oak Road 

Buffalo, New York 
January 22, 1921 
The Youth's Companion 
881 Commonwealth Avenue 
Boston, Mass. 
Dear Sirs : 

Before me is a letter dated November sixteenth, in which you 
state that a postal money order to cover my subscription to 
your magazine for one year has been received. As yet, how- 
ever, I have not received my first copy. 

Will you kindly consult your records to see if some mistake 
has been made in entering my subscription ? 

Very truly yours, 

(Miss) Helen Merrill 

l6 Community English 

A Letter of Adjustment 

Bostou, Massachusetts 

January 24, 192 1 
Miss Helen Merrill 
54 Oak Road 
Buffalo, New York 

Dear Miss Merrill : 

We regret that you have not received any of the January 
numbers of the "Youth's Companion,'' and we thank you for 
calhng our attention to the matter. 

We have consulted our files and find that your order was 
promptly entered, but because of an unusual error in our mailing 
department the magazine was sent to the wrong address. We 
have ordered, therefore, other copies forwarded to you with- 
out delay. If they do not reach you promptly we shall be 
glad to hear from you. 

Very truly yours, 

The Youth's Companion 

Two Letters of Application 

In a letter of application the writer tries to sell his 
services. If the letter is in proper form, neat in appear- 
ance, correct in grammar, punctuation and spelling, it is 
likely to receive attention. But if a personal interview is 
to follow the letter, the application itself may sometimes 
be written in briefest outline. Study carefully the follow- 
ing letter : 

Letter Writing 17 

1 148 Tremont Street 
Boston, Mass. 
June 19, 1920 




Apply by letter to 

Mr. Penny, 48 Park Square. 

Mr. Penny 
48 Park Square 
Boston, Mass. 
Dear Sir : 

In reply to the above advertisement from last night's Tran- 
script, I submit the following statement concerning my qualifica- 
tions for the job you offer. 

If you care to see me, I am at liberty to call at the store at the 
time most convenient to you. 

Very truly yours, 

Harold Ditton 
Statement of Qualifications : 

Age Seventeen 

Nationality American 

• Appearance Height — five feet ten 

Weight — one hundred forty 

Education Newton Grammar School graduate 

Now a Junior in East High School 

Experience Assistant Shipping Clerk for Jones Brothers 

during two summer vacations 

References Mr. A. X. Jacobs 

Principal of East High School 
Mr. James Jones 
no Bovlston Street 

i8 Community English 

Sometimes it is advisable to give in your first letter of 
application all the information which may influence the 
employer in your favor. Why do you think the girl who 
wrote the following letter obtained a position ? 

279 Victoria Circle 
Wayborne, Michigan 
October 12, 1920 
Sales Manager 

The Mack Company 
96 Third Avenue 

San Francisco, California 
My dear Sir : 

My aunt, Mrs. Donald Darby of Los Angeles, has suggested 
that there may possibly be an opening in your store for a girl 
of seventeen, and has promised to write to you in my behalf. 

I am intensely interested in salesmanship, and the selling of 
school books or other school supplies appeals to me particularly. 
I have a good background for such work, having been brought 
up in an educational atmosphere. My father was a superin- 
tendent of schools for many years and my mother was formerly 
a teacher. Consequently I believe that if I were given a chance 
to clerk in the book department of your store, I should be suc- 

I was graduated from the Emerson Junior High School of this 
city with the class of nineteen hundred twenty, and for two 
summers I have been assistant clerk in the Sterling Book Shop 

Mother's health is failing rapidly and the doctor recommends 
a change of climate at once. We are planning to spend the com- 
ing winter in San Francisco, and I can not help feeling that while 
there I ought to be at work. 

It has occurred to me that a position in your store would be 

Letter Writing 19 

especially congenial to me, so I shall appreciate very much any 
information you may be able to give me regarding the possi- 
bility of your employing me in your book department or, in 
fact, in any other department in your store. 

Very truly yours, 

(Miss) Evelyn Phillips 

A Letter of Instructions ^ 

The letter written by a business man to-day is quite 
different from the business letter of George Washington's 
time. In what ways is the following letter unlike a modern 
business letter? 

Head Quarters 
26th July 1780 

I have been honored with your favor of the 15th. 

The particular and spirited exertions of the State of New 
Hampshire to fulfil the objects which we have in view cannot 
but meet the warmest applause of every lover of his country. 
It has mine in a very high degree, but not more than it has 

I could wish the loan of powder to be forwarded as soon as 
practicable to Springfield, and lodged there in the public maga- 
zine. With regard to the supplies of cattle, the bearer of this 
carries full instructions from the commissary of purchases for 
their disposal. 

I have the honor to be with great respect. Sir, 

Your most obt. and h'ble servt 

George Washington 
H'n'ble Meshech Weare Esq. 

^ The examples giv^n are hitherto unpublished letters. 

20 Community English 

A Report 
Business houses frequently ask their men to make brief 
reports in the form of letters. Here is such a report written 
by Benjamin Franklin in 1873. Is it clear? 

Passy, March 7, 1783 
Dear Sir : 

With this I send you a Copy of the last Contract I made with 
this Court respecting the late Loan of Six MilUons, the Terms 
of the Loan and the Time of Repayment. It was impossible 
for me to obtain more, and indeed, considering the State of 
Finances and Expenses here, I wonder I have obtained so much. 
You will see by the inclosed Gazette, that the Government is 
obliged to stop Payment for a year of its own Bills of Exchange 
Drawn in America and the East Indies; yet it has advanced 
Six Millions to save the Credit of ours. You will I am sure do 
all in your Power to avoid drawing beyond y;our funds here for 
I am absolutely assured that no further Aid for this Year is to be 
expected, and it will not be strange that they should suffer 
your Bills to take the same State with their own. You will also 
see in the Contract fresh marks of the King's Goodness towards 
us in giving so long a Time for Payment, and forgiving the first 
Year's Interest. I hope the Ravings of a certain mischevouse 
Madman against France and its Ministers, which I hear of 
every Day, will not be regarded in America, so as to diminish 
in the least the happy Union that has hitherto subsisted be- 
tween the two Nations ; and which is indeed the solid Founda- 
tion of our present Importance in Europe. With great Esteem, 

I am ever 

Dear Sir 

Your most obedient 

and most humble Servant 

Benjamin Franklin 
Honble R. Morris Esq. 

Letter Writing 


The Telegram 

The telegram is similar in form to a letter, but it is for- 
warded with greater rapidity. Those of you whose fathers 
are not closely connected with business houses may think 
that telegrams are used only in case of important emer- 
gencies. This is not the case. Telegrams are in daily 
use because they help to hurry along the world's business. 
Their chief drawback is their expense, and for this reason 
the message must be condensed so as to cost as httle as 
possible. Care must be taken, however, in spite of the 
need for brevity, that the message be clear. Here are 
three suggestions which may help you to write brief, clear 
messages. Omit the words the and and. Do not attempt 
to write complete sentences. Use the word period to 
indicate the end of sentences, if the meaning is not clear 
without such punctuation. 

The cost of the message depends upon the number of 
words used, upon the distance to which it is sent, and upon 
the class of service desired. Since there are four different 
kinds of service, the sender is asked to mark an X in the little 
square opposite the class of service desired. Such a square 
from the Western Union Telegraph blank looks like this : 



Day Letter 

Night Message 

Night Letter 

Patrons should mark an X opposite 
the class of service desired ■ 

22 Community English 

Select one of your classmates to obtain specimens of 
telegraph blanks for your class. The Western Union or 
The Postal Telegraph will gladly furnish blanks for fast 
day messages, for day letters, for night messages, and for 
night letters. Read the following models and answer the 
questions following each model. 

Fast Day Message 



Is the word period necessary in this message to make the 
meaning clear ? Is any charge made for sending the name 
and address of the writer ? What is the rate for a fast day 
message to be sent to a place within a short radius of your 

Day Letter 




Letter Writing 23 

What is the rate for sending day letters ? May more than 
fifty words be sent at this rate? Since day letters are 
sent as deferred service, what advantage is there in sending 
a day letter instead of a fast day message? 

Night Letter 




What is the difference in cost of a fifty word day letter 
and a fifty word night letter? Which is sent the more 
quickly, a day letter or a night letter? May night letters 
be sent in code or must they be in plain EngHsh ? 


The following cablegram was sent by Queen Victoria to the 
great explorer Henry M. Stanley on the completion of his 
famous journey across Africa. 

WINDSOR DEC 10 1889 


V. R. 

24 Community English 

What does V.R. stand for? Are the address and the 
signature counted in addition to the words of the message? 

Now that you have studied in some detail the different 
forms of letter writing, you are ready for your first 


, To make an illustrated booklet containing all the 
correspondence necessary in connection with a long 
journey. You may choose, for example, a trip to the 
home of Evangeline, Miles Standish, Washington Ir- 
ving, Theodore Roosevelt, Bret Harte, Mark Twain, 
Booth Tarkington; or to Niagara Falls, Palm Beach, 
New York City, San Francisco, or Alaska, 

Instructions. — 

1. Consult maps, railway time-tables, ticket agents, 
steamship folders, geographies, and histories, as well as 
your teacher, when making the plans for your trip. 

2. Make a booklet of any plain, heavy paper. Bind it 
securely and decorate the cover. Special directions for 
booklet making will be found at the beginning of Part II 
of this book. 

3. Include in this booklet each of the exercises called 
for by your Undertaking. 

4. Use telegraph blanks, postal money order forms, and 
pictures cut from magazines or original sketches to help 
make this imaginary journey seem as real as possible. 

5. At the end of the time set by your teacher for the 
completion of this Undertaking, hand in your booklet, but 
do not show it to any one until it is finished. 

Letter Writing 25 

6. Remember to make your exercises as nearly correct 
and complete as possible the first time. There will be no 
opportunity to ^' do them over." 

7. If you wish, you may ask your teacher to make this 
a Booklet contest. 

Items to be included. — As you work out your Under- 
taking, plan to enter in your booklet the following exercises : 

1. Write a letter and send it to a railroad or steamship 
company asking for time-tables and folders which will help 
you in planning your imaginary trip. You will find many 
such folders advertised in the daily papers and in maga- 
zines. Enter a copy of your letter in your booklet. 

2. If you receive an answer to your request, you may 
also enter that in your booklet. 

3. Write again to the railroad or steamship company 
(this letter you will not send) making the necessary reser- 
vations. Mention time of departure of train or ship. In- 
close a check to cover cost of ticket. 

4. Write to the WilHam Hengerer Company, Buffalo, 
New York, ordering a brown leather suit case — catalogue 
number 18,956, price $12.00. Mention postal money order 
inclosed in payment. 

5. Although a suit case from the Hengerer Company 
reaches you safely, it is not the case you ordered. Write 
a letter of complaint to the company asking them to correct 
their error. 

6. Write the Hengerer Company's letter of adjustment 
to you. 

7. When you checked your baggage at the home station 
you were in such haste to catch the train that you left your 

26 Community English 

pocketbook lying on the baggage agent's desk. As soon 
as you discover your loss, telegraph the baggage agent, 
describing the purse and asking that he forward it to 

8. On the way you miss train connections and are forced 
to spend the night with an old friend. Telegraph the 
people who expected to meet you. State what caused the 
delay, where you are, and when you expect to reach your 

9. The next morning you again start on your journey. 
Write your friend's mother a note of thanks for her hos- 
pitality. Tell her how much you appreciate her kindness 
to you and mention some of the incidents of your journey. 

10. Finally you reach your destination only to discover 
that somewhere between the station and your hotel you have 
lost your suit case. Write an advertisement for the " Lost 
and Found " column of one of the local papers. Describe 
your case and mention a reward. 

1 1 . After you have spent a week in sight-seeing, write a 
travel letter to your mother or chum 

a. telling her incidents of your journey and arrival, 

b. describing the landscape, the houses, and the people, 

c. discussing what has interested you most because of 
its unusualness. 

12. Send a night letter to your father telling him when 
you expect to reach home. 

13. After arriving home and telling your relatives and 
friends about your trip, you decide to go to work. Write 
a letter applying for a position as ofhce helper, clerk, 
mother's helper, or whatever you choose. Mention your 
age, education, references, and experience, if any. 

Letter Writing 27 


I. Imagine that you are the business manager of the foot- 
ball team. In an illustrated booklet, arrange all the corre- 
spondence necessary in connection with booking and playing 
the Thanksgiving game with a rival team from out of town. 
For the word ^^ football " you may substitute, if you wish, the 
word " baseball " or ^' basketball " or " debate. ^^ 

1 . Write a letter to the manager of the other team trying 
to arrange the game. 

2. Write his answer to you. 

3. Telegraph for train reservations for your team. 

4. Write to the hotel for accommodations for the night 
of the game. 

5. Write a letter of complaint to the manager of the rival 
team about some unsatisfactory arrangement. 

6. Write his letter of adjustment to you. 

7. Write a letter to your chum telhng about the game 
and describing events of particular interest. 

8. Write a note of thanks to the woman who gave a 
dinner for members of your team after the game. 

9. Write any other letter that suggests itself to you in 
this connection. 

II. Imagine that you are to be a guest at a farm in Vermont 
when maple sugar is made. In an illustrated booklet arrange 
all the correspondence necessary in connection with the trip. 
For the word " maple sugar " you may substitute, if you wish, 
one of the following, and omit the words ^^ farm in Vermont " .' 
coal mine, lead mine, sugar plantation, automobile factory. 
copper mine, zinc mine, orange grove, or cotton plantation. 

28 Community English 

1. Write your Vermont friend's invitation to you. 

2. Write your reply. State definitely your plans for 
length of stay, time of arrival, etc. 

3. Write a letter to a merchant ordering a rain coat for 
use on the trip. 

4. Telegraph for railroad reservations. 

5. Write an advertisement for the " Lost and Found" 
column of a local paper for your umbrella lost on the way 
to the train. 

6. Send a night letter to your mother telKng of your safe 

7. Write to a friend telling of your visit and describing 
in some detail the process of making maple sugar. 

8. Write a note of thanks to the mother of your Vermont 
friend for her courtesy to you while you were a guest in her 

9. Write a letter applying for a job as a helper at a 
maple sugar grove during the next spring vacation. 

10. Write a letter of complaint to the merchant from 
whom you ordered the rain coat, stating that a coat much 
smaller in size than that ordered has been received, though 
the style is the same. You need the coat at once. Ask 
to have the matter made right. 

11. Write the merchant's letter of adjustment to you. 

///. Make a booklet containing the correspondence 
necessary in getting a job. 

1. From the daily paper copy into your booklet an 
advertisement of " Boy Wanted " or " Girl Wanted." 

2. Write to Dr. Wilham Jones, 87 Pine Street, Richmond, 

Letter Writing 29 

Virginia, asking permission to use his name as reference 
when applying for a position for the summer. 

3. Answer the advertisement, applying for the position 
and stating your qualifications. Before you begin writing 
this letter, make a brief outhne of what you wish to say. 
Perhaps you may wish to include the following items in 
your letter : (i) how you know a boy or girl is wanted ; by 
advertisement in a newspaper, or by advice of a friend ; 
(2) a statement of your qualification; age, nationality, 
education — including your grade and record at school, — 
experience, and references. 

4. Write a reply to your letter of application, offering 3^ou 
the job. This letter tells you definitely what your work 
is to be, states what wages you may expect, and sets the 
time for you to enter upon your new duties. 

This Undertaking may be made a contest called " Getting 
a Job." Your teacher will act as employer. Upon the 
blackboard she will write a "Help Wanted" advertisement. 
Each pupil in the class may apply in writing for the position. 
The best letter of appHcation will win the job. 

IV. Organize a Class Post Office for the exchange of class 
letters. A postmaster may he chosen and two mail carriers 
appointed. To each pupil in the class is assigned an official 
title. Your classmates may write to you, hut all letters ad- 
dressed to you must he answered. The letters are corrected 
in class for spelling, punctuation, and neatness. 

The following directions are merely suggestive : 

I. Write to the Governor, asking him to speak at your 
county fair. 

30 Community English 

2. Write to the . President, urging him to accept your 
prize turkey for his Thanksgiving dinner. 

3. Write to the Secretary of State, asking him to work 
for better automobile laws. 

4. Write to the Superintendent of Schools, applying for 
a position as helper in the school booth at the county fair. 

5. Write to the college Registrar, asking him for a 

6. Write to the president of a large manufacturing 
company, applying for a position as ofHce boy. 

V. Pretend that you are the business manager of your 
class. Dictate a series of letters to one of your classmates, 
who will act as your stenographer. Do not write out your 
letters before you begin dictation. As soon as you have finished 
dictating, you may act as stenographer for your classmate. 
Dictate any three of the letters suggested below: 

1. Write a letter to the Principal of your school, asking 
him to act as judge in a debate conducted by your class. 

2. Write a letter thanking him for doing so. 

3. Write a letter to a merchant, ordering a dozen tennis 

4. Write the reply of the merchant, stating that he is 
sending you the balls ordered in your letter. Inclose a bill. 

5. Write a letter to the merchant, inclosing a check in 

6. Write a letter to a friend who is planning to visit you. 
Give him very definite instructions how to get to your house 
from the station. 

7. Write a letter to a friend who is attending school in 
some other state. Ask him to complete arrangements for 

Letter Writing 3 1 

the visit of your class to a point of interest in his neighbor- 

8. Write a letter to a piano manufacturer. Ask him for 
the lowest price for a piano for your school, the easiest 
method of payment, the amount of installments, etc. 
State clearly that the pupils are attempting to raise the 
money by school entertainments, and mention the sum 
already raised which can be given as first payment. 

9. Write a letter to the editor of your school paper, urging 
him to help your class form a school bird club. Ask him 
to write an editorial setting forth the advantage of the 
study of birds. Substitute it you wish, one of the following 
for bird club: corn club, pig club, canning club, poultry club. 

10. Imagine yourself to be the story or literary editor 
of your school paper. Write a letter to your teacher, asking 
her to announce a Prize Essay Contest to be conducted by 
your department during December for the Christmas num- 
ber of your paper. Give details covering the nature of the 
prize, the conditions of the contest, the length of the story, 
and the judges of the contest. 

VI. Pretend that you are a Spanish sailor writing a letter 
home to your another, telling her of your first voyage with 
Columbus across the '' Sea of Darkness. ^^ 

Suggestive questions. — 

1 . When did you start on your voyage ? 

2. From what port did you sail? 

3. How many other sailors were in the crew? 

4. What was the name of the ship ? Describe it. 

5. Why did Columbus make this voyage? 

6. Were you anxious to go with Columbus? 

32 Community English 

7. Why were some of the sailors released from prison 
in order to make the trip ? 

8. What was your feeUng toward Columbus when he 
would not turn back? 

9. What was Columbus' attitude toward you? 

10. What were the first signs of land you saw? 

1 1 . How many days were you on the ocean ? 

12. What did you do when you finally reached the 
shore ? 

13. What name did Columbus give to this land ? What 
did the name mean? 

14. To whom did he say the land belonged? 

15. What was the appearance of the island? 

16. In what way did the natives seem strange to you? 

17. Did you return home immediately? 

18. What other land did you see? 

19. Did you find the golden treasure you were seeking? 

20. How many sailors were left in the fort at Hispaniola ? 

VII. Imagine yourself to be a Spanish soldier under the 
command of De Soto. Write a letter to one of your friends 
in Spain telling of your voyage of discovery. Describe the 
boat on which you sailed; mention the weather and the food; 
speak of the landing, of the disappointments, of the four 
years' wandering, and finally describe your joy at beholding 
the majestic river ; describe the death and burial of Be 

VIII. Imagine yourself to be a young girl sent over by the 
London Company to the colony of Virginia. Write a letter 
to your mother in England telling about your voyage, your 
new home, your husband, the first crop of tobacco which he 

Letter Writing 33 

successfully raised, your Indian neighbors, your black slaves, 
and mention several of the hardships you had to meet. 

IX. Imagine yourself to be a companion of Captain Miles 
Standish as he sailed on the ' ' Mayflower^ ' to Plymouth. Write 
a letter to your father stating the purpose of the voyage, de- 
scribing the ship, the weather, the building of the one new house, 
your Indian neighbors, the meeting with Massasoit, and the 
first Thanksgiving day. 

X. Imagine yourself to be a Dutch sailor under the com- 
mand of Henry Hudson. Write a letter to one of the officials 
of your home town in Holland telling why Hudson was sent 
out on the voyage, the appearance of the ship on which you 
sailed, the first sight of land, trading with the Indians, and the 
discovery of a river. 

XI. Imagine yourself to be one of La Salle's captains on 
his journey of exploration through the great waterways of New 
France. Write a letter to your brother telling of the voyage 
from France to Canada, of your journey down the Illinois 
and the Mississippi rivers to the gulf, of the vines and fruit trees 
and forests, of the wild animals and their furs, and finally of 
the naming of the whole region — Louisiana. 

XII. Imagine yourself to be an English soldier under the 
leadership of General James Wolfe on his expedition to capture 
Quebec. Write a letter to a soldier cousin telling of the journey 
up the St. Lawrence, of your nine thousand companions, of 
the coming to anchor below Quebec, of the booming of the 
cannon, of the shelling of the lower town, of your repulse, of 
the discovery of a path, of the great battle on the plains of 
Abraham, and finally of the death of your gallant leader. 

XIII. Imagine yourself to be a friend of Paul Revere. 
Write a letter to your mother telling of the intense excitement 

34 Community English 

in Boston when the British soldiers started for Concord, of 
the signal flashing from the lanterns in the old North Church, 
of Revere^ s wild ride ahead of the soldiers, of his cries arousing 
the people, of the assembling of the Minute MeV', of the firing 
of the " shot heard ^ round the world, ^^ and finally of the retreat 
of the British to Charlestown. 

^ XI V. Pretend that you are a sailor 07i the flagship " Bon- 
homme Richard'^ under the command of John Paul Jones. 
Write a letter to your mother telling of the appearance of the 
ship, of the voyage along the- English coast, of the strange crew, 
of the sighting of the merchant fleet, of the chase, of the attack 
on the " Serapis,''^ of the great bravery of your commander, and 
of the result of the fight. 

V XV. Imagine yourself to be a backwoods volunteer of 
Virginia under the leadership of George Rogers Clark. Write 
a letter to your father telling of your expedition to capture the 
British posts along the Ohio River. Mention the small body 
of soldiers, the journey down the Ohio to the Mississippi, the 
taking of Kaskaskia, and the capture of Vincennes — without 
a blow. 

/ XVI. Pretend that you are a visitor to New York during 
the first inauguration of Washington. Write a letter to your 
people at home telling of the glorious spring sunshine, the 
joyful city, the booming guns, the ringing bells, the military 
music, the grand processions, and finally of the appearance 
of the first President of the United States of America — 
George Washington. 

J XVII. Imagine yourself to be a friend of Alexander 
Hamilton. Write a letter to a friend of his telling of the 
wonderful work of the first Secretary of the Treasury. Men- 
tion two of Hamilton's opponents, and state four ways in 

Letter Writing 35 


which Hamilton " smote the rock of the national resources, ^^ 
so that " abundant streams of revenue gushed forth.'' 
/^ XVIII. Imagine yourself to be one of the brave adven- 
turers who went with Lewis and Clark on their expedition into 
the unexplored wilderness. Write a letter to your mother 
telling of your companions, of the reason for sending out the 
exploring party, by whom it was sent, where the money came 
from to pay the expenses, of your journey up the Missouri 
River, of the boat itself, of your danger from hostile Indians, 
of the hardships of your journey over the Rocky Mountains, 
of your meeting with the Indian girl, Sacajawea, and of your 
journey down the Columbia River to the Pacific. 

XIX. Imagine yourself to be one of the pioneers who went 
with Daniel Boone into Kentucky. Write a letter to your 
wife telling her of the advantages of the new country, of the 
bufalo and deer, of the warning given to Boone by the Indians, 
of the beauty of the journey through the Cumberland Gap, and 
of the desire that she be ready to move with you into Kentucky. 
■^XX. Imagine that you are a passenger on the trial trip 
of the " Clermont " up the Hudson River. Write a letter to your 
sister telling her of the appearance of the boat, of its astonishing 
noise and speed, of the beauty of the .scenery, of your compan- 
ions, of the inventor of the boat, of his personal appearance, and 
of his intense interest in the trial trip of his boat. 

XXI . Imagine that you are a passenger on the first train 
sent over the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Write a letter 
to your brother telling him of the exciting ride, the great speed 
of the train, the appearance of the car, the passengers, and 
the length of time it took to complete the fourteen mile journey. 

XXII. Imagine yourself to be a friend of Elias Howe. 
Write a letter to your mother telling of the struggle of a poverty- 

36 Community English 

stricken man to make a machine which would sew. Tell her 
of the trials of Howe and of his final success. Describe the 
sewing machine and tell her how much can be accomplished 
with it. 
■^ XXIII. Imagine that you are one of the emigrants who 

y/' took the long overland journey to seek gold in California. 
Write a letter to your mother telling her of the preparations 
you made for the journey, of the emigrant wagon, of your 
companions, of the long and weary journey, of the mining 
camps, and of finding gold while " panning " gravel. 

XXIV. Imagine yourself a sailor who journeyed with 
\i/' the United States fleet around the world in igo8. Write a 
letter to your mother at the end of the voyage, telling her of the 
fleet of sixteen battleships, of your companions, of the food, 
of your duties, of the ports at which you stopped, of the attitude 
of the people toward the sailors, and of the great purpose of 
the voyage. 
, I XXV. Imagine yourself an engineer at work on the con- 

yv^^' struction of the Panama Canal. Write a letter to your father 
telling him of the climate, of the conditions under which you 
live, of your companions, of your work, of the great locks, of 
the Culebra cut, and of the slides into the channel. 


When you have written an unusually good composition 
you probably hate to throw it away as soon as your mis- 
takes have been pointed out — it seems such a waste of 
effort. In many schools the pupils give permanent value 
to their written work by binding their compositions into a 
booklet. How would you Hke to make such a booklet 
containing an illustrated composition on some subject in 
which you are especially interested? There are several 
ways of illustrating your compositions and of binding 
them into book form, so the following suggestions may help 
you as you begin the work of your second 


To make a booklet containing an illustrated com- 
position entitled ''Choosing a Vocation.'* With the 
consent of your teacher you may substitute any one of 
the subjects based upon geography, history, argricul- 
ture, household arts, community civics, literature, or 
natural history, listed at the end of this Undertaking, 

Instructions for making the booklet. — 

I . Make the covers of your booklet of any heavy mount- 
ing paper such as ingrain wall paper, brown kraft paper, 
drawing paper, bogus paper, which is excellent and inexpen- 


38 Community English 

sive ; or tailors' pattern paper, which comes in several soft 
colors, is inexpensive, and answers every purpose. 

2. Make the inside pages of your booklet of the same 
material as the covers, if you wish. You will find, however, 
that one of the Hghter weight papers will be more satisfac- 
tory. Choose either unruled essay paper, typewriter paper, 
or any other plain paper of good quality. 

3. Cut the inside pages of your booklet 6 inches wide by 
9 inches long and make the outside covers a Httle larger, 
perhaps 7 inches wide by 10 inches long. 

4. You may fasten your booklet either with heavy cord 
or with paper clips like this : 

"TMs 13 a brass clip 

Such brass fasteners are much easier to use than the cord 
but much more expensive and far less decorative and 

5. If you decide to fasten the booklet with the cord, 
punch three holes in the long side of the booklet about 
one-half inch from the outer edge. With the front cover 
uppermost, thread a heavy cord through the center hole, 
through the lower end hole, back through the upper end 
hole, then back through the middle hole, and tie in a bow 
knot in the center. 

6. Decorate the cover in any way you wish with water 
color, ink, colored crayon, snapshots, or pictures cut 
from folders or magazines. You will do well to remember 
that the simplest decoration is often the most effective. 
Do not hesitate to consult your drawing teacher about 
this Undertaking, as she will be glad to talk it over with 

The Making of Booklets 39 

7. When you have completed your booklet it may look 
something like this : 

8. For additional information in regard to the making of 
booklets you may consult Primary Handwork by Ella V. 
Dobbs, or Illustrative Handwork by the same author. 

Instructions for preparing the composition. — 

1. Try to select a subject which seems worth while. 
Choose some business you would like to enter when you are 
old enough. You may wish to be a lawyer, a doctor, a 
teacher, a professional ball player, a policeman, an elec- 
trician, a missionary, a home maker, a business man; in 
fact, you may select any occupation which interests you most. 

2. Make your composition as accurate as possible. Find 
out all you can about the business you choose. What are 
the qualifications necessary to enter it ? What are its most 
important duties? What advantages does the profession 
offer and what are some of its disadvantages? Interview, 
if you can, a person who is already m your chosen profession. 

40 Community English 

Get first hand information before you begin to write your 
article, but do not forget to consult books also. 

3. The ideas in your composition should be expressed 
according to a definite plan, so you will be helped by 
making an outline of what you wish to say before you begin. 
Unless your booklet indicates that you know how to collect 
and arrange material properly, it has little value in this 

4. Make your booklet as attractive as you can. On one 
of the front pages of your Httle book copy the outline which 
you made before writing your composition, then include 
your composition. From old newspapers, advertisements, 
or magazines, cut pictures to illustrate your theme, or 
make little sketches if you prefer. Application blanks, 
government instructions, or telegraph blanks may be 
included as illustrative material if you choose. You will 
be sure that the book is your book and that the ideas in it 
are your ideas if you write the composition, arrange the 
illustrations, and add an attractive cover before you hand it 
to your teacher. 

Specimen compositions. — Read carefully the following 
compositions before you write your own composition in 
order that you may answer these questions : 

1. How many totally unrelated subjects are discussed 
in any one composition? 

2. How many parts of a subject are discussed in any 
one paragraph? 

3. Where does the first line of each paragraph begin? 

4. When is a paragraph ended and a new paragraph 

The Making of Booklets 41 

5. Where is the main idea of the paragraph usually 
stated ? 

6. What is another important position for the main 

7. Out of what sentence do all the other sentences of a 
paragraph grow? 

8. What other name might be given to the topic 
sentence ? 

9. How are the sentences of a composition cemented or 
glued together? 

10. Can you plan an outline for each of the following 

Why a Baby Elephant Was Spanked 

It is not believed that any animal has a sense of humor such 
as human beings have ; yet here is an authenticated story : A 
mother elephant was dragging an extraordinarily heavy timber, 
which she had been unable to pick up, from one spot to another 
in a shipyard. Two chains were fastened to her collar and 
joined to a device like a huge ice hook which was fastened into 
the end of the log. As she toiled along with her burden, her 
half-grown baby elephant walked beside her. 

She came to an incline where she had to exert her entire 
strength to drag the log up ; and while she was leaning forward, 
the baby elephant suddenly dropped back, caught one of the 
hooks with his trunk, and yanked it out of the log, with the 
result that the old elephant was thrown forward on her head, 
her heels up in the air. The little elephant made straightway 
for the woods near by, as hard as he could gallop. 

The mother got herself together quickly, looked all around, 
and took after the youngster, her trunk upraised. She caught 
up with him in the woods ; and the men working about the ship- 

42 Community English 

yard heard his squeals as her trunk descended on him again and 
again. Finally the two of them reappeared, the little elephant 
walking dejectedly at his mother's heels holding to her tail. 
Samuel Arthur Derieux : The Smartest Animals We Know 

A Japanese Baby 

Almost every Japanese girl has a baby brother or sister 
strapped on her back, for babies are never carried in the arms 
in Japan except by the nurses of very wealthy people. The 
baby is fastened on its mother's or its sister's shoulders by a 
shawl, and that serves it for both cot and cradle. The little 
girl does not lose a single scrap of her play because of the baby. 
She runs here and there, striking with her battledore, or racing 
after her friends, and the baby swings to and fro on her shoulders, 
its little head wobbling from side to side as if it were going to 
tumble off. But it is perfectly content, and either watches the 
game with its little black eyes, or goes calmly off to sleep. 

But the Japanese baby must learn many things. He is 
taught how to walk, how to bow, how to kneel, and touch the 
floor with his forehead in the presence of a superior, and how to 
get up again ; and all is done in the most graceful manner and 
without disturbing a single fold of his kimono. One writer 
speaks of going into a Japanese shop to buy some articles he 
wanted. The master, the mistress, the children, all bent down 
before him. There was a two-year-old baby asleep on his 
sister's back, and he, too, was awakened and called upon to 
pay his respects to the foreign gentleman. He woke without a 
start or cry, understood at once what was required of him, was 
set on his feet, and then proceeded to make his bows and to 
touch the ground with his little forehead, just as exactly as his 
elder relatives. This done, he was restored once more to the 
shawl, and was asleep again in a moment. 

John Finnemore : Japan. Adapted. 


The Making of Booklets 43 

Choosing a Vocation 

What would you do with a milUon dollars if it were given you 
to-day to invest wisely? Perhaps, you would consult bankers 
and brokers whose judgment you valued, as well as a lawyer or 
two, and doubtless you would discuss the investment with your 
friends. Fortunately, a legacy far more valuable than a million 
dollars has been given to you to invest as you wish. For your 
life you would not take a million dollars, would you? Yet you 
are probably giving almost no thought at all to the manner in 
which you invest it day by day. 

Nevertheless, this matter of life-investment or choice of 
vocation is one of the most vital problems you are compelled 
to meet. No person can make life mean much, either to him- 
self or to his fellow men, if he does not meet his daily task with 
eagerness. If in his work he does not find full scope and ex- 
pression, he cannot work efficiently. The constant friction of 
"working against the grain" prevents his ever attaining com- 
plete joy and happiness. If, however, a person is enthusiastic 
in his work, he does it well and successfully and is bound, there- 
fore, to be a vital force in his community. 

Are you thinking about what your vocation is to be ? Are you 
reasonably sure that you are fitted by nature and education to 
do the thing you want to do? Have you consulted older and 
wiser people to obtain advice and help in this matter of how you 
shall spend your life? If you have not yet begun to study 
yourself, it is time that you found out what your inclinations 
and wishes are, and for what vocation these interests and abili- 
ties and ambitions best adapt you. 

A Cherry-Tree Festival 

A curious custom is observed in the German city of Hamburg. 
It is a festival for the children, who march in procession through 

44 Community English 

the streets waving cherry-tree branches, laden with fruit. 
This festival has been held for more than 400 years, and serves 
to remind the people of a grand victory that was won by none 
but little children over an army of fierce men. 

In the year 1432 Hamburg was besieged by a great army. 
The war had been raging for many years and on both sides it 
had become very bitter and cruel. The people of Hamburg 
were terribly afraid, for they knew they could not hold out much 
longer against such superior numbers. A council of the chief 
citizens was held to consider what was to be done, and after 
much discussion some one suggested that they should send out 
the little children who might so melt the hearts of the soldiers 
that they would do no harm to the town. 

Then all the children were gathered together from their homes, 
the city gate was opened and they were told to march out to the 
army. The soldiers lying outside, who had come to destroy 
the city and muider all who were in it, were surprised to see 
the gate swing open, and little children all in pure white robes 
come forth. When the little ones drew timidly up to their 
tents, the eyes of the rough soldiers began to fill with tears, and 
— as there were cherry orchards all about — they threw down 
their weapons and gathered beautiful branches off the cherry 
trees and sent back the children to their parents with messages 

of peace. 

Nesfield : Jjmior Course of English Composition 

Optional composition subjects. — With the consent of 
your teacher, any of the following subjects may be sub- 
stituted for " Choosing a Vocation " as the title of your 

I . Subjects based upon history : 

Indian Tools, Weapons, or Food 

A Method of Travel in Colonial Times 

The Making of Booklets 45 

Dress of the Colonists 

Dress of Colonial Children 

A Colonial School Book 

A Colonial Newspaper 

A Colonial Kitchen 

Food in Colonial Days 

A Colonial Church 

A Dutch Home or School or Church 

A Pioneer Home 

One Day in a Pioneer School 

My Hero (Any historical character) 

Comparison of Uniforms Worn during the Civil 
War and the Great War 

An Important Event in the History of My State 

An Interesting Item of Local History 

An Example of Courage from Local History 

One of the Liberty Loans 

Civil Service 

Enfranchisement of Women 

An Important Battle of the Great War 

The Story of Our Army or Navy 

The Development of any School or College in Your 

An American Inventor 

A Famous American Poet 

Early Days in My Community (The first store- 
keeper, tavern-keeper, school teacher, newspaper, 
or church) 

One of Our Presidents 

A Famous American Author 

A Famous American Artist 

46 Community English 

2. Subjects based upon agriculture : 

Several Varieties of Apples (Any other fruit may 
be substituted for apples.) 

A Model Dairy 

How Plants Get Their Food from the Soil 

How Seeds are Scattered 

Raising Corn (Wheat, oats, or barley may be sub- 
stituted for corn.) 

Raising Sheep (Pigs, horses, or cows may be sub- 
stituted for sheep.) 

Making Maple Sugar 

Soil Improvement of the Farm 

3. Subjects based upon household arts : 

One Method of House Decoration 

House Furnishing 




Making Hats 

4. Subjects based upon natural history : 

Bird Notes (A study of birds in your community) 

Native Plants 

Native Flowers 

Native Animals 

Weeds in My Town or County 

Fish in the Streams or Lakes of My County 

Minerals of My County 

Varieties of Fruit Grown in My LocaHty 

The Honey Bee 

The Making of Booklets 47 

Subjects based upon literature : 

The Pied Piper of Hamelin 
The Courtship of Miles Standish 
Rip Van Winkle 
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow 
Treasure Island 

The Jungle Books (Especially the Mowgli Stories) 
Little Women or Little Men 
Hans Brinker 

The Wreck of the Hesperus 
The Great Stone Face 
Stories of King Arthur 
Lamb's " Tales from Shakespeare ^' 
Barbara Frietchie 
Abou Ben Adhem 
The Bell of Atri 

The Diverting History of John Gilpin 
King Robert of Sicily 
Herve Riel 
Paul Revere's Ride 
The King of the Golden River 
Horatius at the Bridge 
The Last of the Mohicans 
David Copperiield 
Tom Sawyer 
The Call of the Wild 
A Watcher in the Woods 
The Man Without a Country 
Christmas Carol 

48 Community English 


Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch 
Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm 
Franklin's Autobiography 

6. Subjects based upon geography : 

The Most Important Industry in My City 

The Plant Life of North America (Any other 

country may be substituted.) 
The Products of IlHnois (Any other state may be 

Food in Eskimo Land (China, Japan, or India may 

be substituted.) 
Typical Houses of California (Any state or country 

may be substituted for California.) 
Typical Home Life in any Foreign Country (In 

this composition you may discuss foreign houses, 

food, dress, entertainment, customs, etc.) 
The Capital City of This State 
The Panama Canal 

The Chief Physical Features of This State 
Iowa (Substitute any other state for Iowa and 

discuss its noted people, its important buildings, 

its chief industries, and other important items of 


7. Subjects based upon community civics : 

For the first three subjects in the following list special 
questions have been suggested. You may use them or not 
as you wish. Remember, however, to substitute the words 
town or village for the word city in case you do not live in 
the city. 

The Making of Booklets 49 

Street Advertising 

Why is the appearance of a street often spoiled by 

What effect upon real estate have several large tumble- 
down billboards ? 

Can you do anything, as a class, to remove objection- 
able billboards from your community? 

Are any of the advertisements artistic? Do they add 
to the beauty of the street ? 

Does your city regulate street advertising in any way? 

Have you ever heard of a city where no large billboards 
were permitted? 

In what part of your city are billboards especially 
objectionable ? 
The Post Ofhce 

What is the appearance of the post office in your city? 

Who is the postmaster? Who is postmaster-general? 

Is the post ofhce controlled by the city, by the state, or 
by the United States? 

What is the meaning of special delivery, parcels post, 
registered letter, insured package, money order, and 
postal savings bank? 

What are some of the advantages of free dehvery? 

Are the letter carriers compelled to take and pass civil 
service examinations? 

How does the post ofhce department in your city speed 
the delivery of mail? 

What special effort is made at the local office to handle 
the Christmas rush? 
School Gardens 

What is the meaning of school garden ? 

50 Community English 

How many such gardens were there in your city last 

Why are these gardens of special value to city children ? 

Have you ever been a school gardener ? What success 
did you have? 

Do you know of a vacant lot in your locality which 
might be used for a school garden? 

Who furnishes the seeds and fertilizer for school 
gardens ? 

What becomes of the crops which are raised ? 

Is school credit given for school garden work? 

Can you think of any improvements which might be 
made in the school gardens next year ? 
Why I Am Loyal to My City 
The Smoke Nuisance in Our City 
Social Settlement Work in This City 
Industrial Development in This City 
The Architecture of Our Pubhc Buildings 
Better Housing 

What It Means to Be a Good Citizen 
The Chamber of Commerce in This City 
Associated Charities in This City 
Character and Variety of Industries in This City 
Medical Inspection in the Schools 
United States Money 

The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals 
Labor Conditions in This City 
Americanization Work in This City 
Advantages of This City as a Commercial Center 
Boy Scouts or Girl Scouts or Campfire Girls 

The Making of Booklets 51 


I. To make a class booklet. 

Instructions. — In itself the class booklet differs in no 
way from the individual booklet — except possibly in size. 
As soon as the subject has been chosen for the booklet by 
the class, however, two captains are appointed by the 
teacher. The class is then divided into groups under the 
leadership of the captains and each group works out one 
part of the subject. Your special duty is to provide a 
single page for the booklet. A committee, chosen by the 
class, binds the leaves together with a hea\y cord and also 
provides the cover decoration. After the booklet has been 
displayed upon the bulletin board for a given length of 
time, it is placed in the school Hbrary for the use of other 
English classes. 

II. To make a class scrapbook. 

Instructions. — The class scrapbook is like the class 
booklet except that it usually contains the class work of 
several different Undertakings as well as such illustrative 
material as the following: photographs, newspaper items, 
maps, charts, accounts of visits to local industrial plants, 
and bulletins of local information. 

///. To make a class anthology. 

Instructions. — After looking up the meaning of anthology 
in the dictionary, choose from the daily paper the poem you 
like best, but limit your subject to poems of nature, poems 
of war, or poems of heroism. Prepare to read the poem 
before your class, which is a board of censorship. If your 
classmates and teacher approve your choice of poem, 

52 Community English 

you may paste it upon a sheet of unruled paper 8 Xii 
in size. At the bottom of the page write these words: 

Poem submitted by (sign your name). 

File the poem with those submitted by your classmates. 
As soon as twenty or more poems have been collected, you 
may select a committee of three from your class to arrange 
the sheets in booklet form. Upon the cover of the little 
book should be printed neatly : Anthology of Poetry, col- 
lected by class , date. 


Do you remember how hopeless Rebecca of Sunnybrook 
Farm felt when she was asked to write a composition about 
^'Cloud Pictures " or some other subject of which she 
knew nothing? If you do, you will recall how dismayed 
her teacher was when the composition was handed in. 
Doubtless, you sympathized with Rebecca, who longed 
for EngHsh lessons — '' just a little more interesting " ; 
and you will be glad that this Undertaking deals with your 
own life in your own community and is, therefore, sure to 
prove of interest. As a reporter, or " bearer of news " to 
your classmates, you are to make an investigation of some 
local public utility. They in turn will bring reports to you. 

Since there are several ways in which to gather material 
for these reports, it will be well for you to decide which of 
the following methods you will undertake : each pupil 
may investigate a different subject ; or the entire class may 
make a thorough investigation of just one subject ; or the 
teacher may divide the class into as many different groups 
as there are public utilities and each group may investigate 
a different subject. In case you decide upon group activ- 
ity, each group should be headed by a captain. Having 
decided upon your subject and the manner of finding out 
about it, you are ready for your third 

To investigate one of the public utilities in your 
community and to give a short report of your 


Oral and Written Reports 55 

You may be interested to know that the public utilities 
which are usually supplied to the city by corporations are 
the following : water, gas, electricity, telephone, and trans- 
portation. The pubUc utilities which ordinarily a city 
supphes for itself are : parks, libraries, schools, museums, 
hospitals, playgrounds, and markets. 

As you make your investigation you will come across 
material which is of no special value to you but which may 
greatly help a classmate in his report. Do you not think 
that it would be courteous, and helpful to the work of the 
class, to pass along such material? 

Instructions. — 

1 . Decide upon the public utility you wish to investigate 
and announce your decision to your teacher. 

2. Plan a trip to observe and investigate the utility 

3. Make arrangements with some official of the com- 
pany for your visit. 

4. While going through the plant or ofhce, conduct your- 
self as a self-respecting American citizen. Be quiet, cour- 
teous, and respectful. 

5. Jot down in a notebook the most important informa- 
tion you receive. 

6. Find out all you can about your subject in books and 
papers, and discuss your Undertaking with your parents 
and older people. 

7. Before giving your report in class you will probably 
wish to write out what you are going to say. From the 
notes jotted down, arrange your material, according to 
topics, in paragraph form. Write this first draft just as 

56 Community English 

well as you can, then read it over carefully and make cor- 
rections. If information is obtained from books, maga- 
zines, or newspapers, be sure to give the source of your 
authority Give name of book or magazine, date of 
publication, and pages where information is obtained. 

8. Bring to class interesting pictures, clippings, or 
photographs for display upon the bulletin board. 

9. In class make a short report of your investigation. 
If your teacher wishes, you may be limited to five minutes. 

10. Remember to stand erect, speak distinctly, use 
simple words, and leave out all unimportant details. It is 
absolutely essential that your report be true, that it be clear, 
and that it be complete. 

11. When called upon by your teacher, be ready to 
discuss the report of any other pupil in regard to English, 
sentence structure, manner of presentation, and distinctness. 

1 2 . The best report may be published in the school paper 
or in any local paper. 

13. Written reports may be filed in the class scrapbook. 

Suggestive questions. — Under each pubhc utiHty Usted 
in this Undertaking there are certain questions to help 
you in your investigation. Do not limit yourself to these 
questions however, for you will find out many things not 
listed here. 

I. Water Works 

Describe the water works building and plant. 
Where does the water supply come from — springs, 

lakes, or rivers? 
How is water pressure secured? 

Oral and Written Reports 57 

How is the water stored, in a standpipe or in a 
reservoir ? 

Is the water system owned by the community or is 
it privately controlled ? 

How much money does this corporation pay to the 
city each year ? 

Is the water pure or are you asked to boil it before 
drinking it? 

How much does your family pay for the water it uses ? 

What is a water meter ? If there is a meter in your 
house, can you read it ? 

What is a water filter ? How is the water for your 
city filtered ? 

Is the water pressure great enough to afford protection 
against fires ? 

Why is it wrong to leave a faucet open or to waste 
water in any way? 

Have you seen any person in your community wast- 
ing the water supply of the city? 

If the water works plant is not attractive in appear- 
ance, what can you suggest to beautify it ? 

2. Gas 

Is gas used in your community for street hghting pur- 
poses ? 

Is it also used in your city for heating purposes ? 

Is it natural or artificial gas ? 

Can you read the gas meter in your house ? 

How much does it cost your family a month for gas ? 

Is the supply of gas sufficient for the community or 
are there times when the gas supply is very low? 

58 Community English 

Are the pavements often torn up so that the gas 

mains can be repaired ? 
How much does the company pay to the city for the 

privilege of using the streets? 
Is the gas office an attractive building? Could it 

be made more beautiful by the addition of vines, 

trees, or shrubs? 

3. Telephones 

Who invented the telephone? 

When was the first telephone message sent? 

How many telephone exchanges are there in your 

How many operators are employed? 

How many miles of wire are used? 

Are the wires above the street or are they under- 
ground ? 

Are the poles for the wires unsightly or are they 
decorative in design ? 

Is your telephone service satisfactory? 

How long do the telephone girls work each day? 
How much are they paid? 

Is the telephone building attractive? Would it look 
better with more shrubbery and vines about it ? 

How is the telephone service regulated? 

What is a switchboard, receiver, transmitter, party 
line ? 

4. Transportation 

What relation is there between transportation and the 
well-being of the community? 

Oral and Written Reports 59 

Who controls the street railways in your city or 
town ? 

How much money does the street car company pay 
to your city for the privilege of using the streets ? 

How long does it take you to come to school ? Do you 
walk, use the elevated, subway, or surface cars, 
or do you come by the steam road? 

Are there elevated roads or subways in your com- 
munity ? 

Which gives the better service ? 

Why were the elevated and subways built ? 

Are there many accidents at grade crossings in your 
locality ? 

How many were there last year ? 

Has any effort been made to do away with grade 
crossings ? 

When were the first street cars used in your city ? 

Describe the first cars. Explain how they were differ- 
ent from those in use to-day. 

Does the company provide seats for all who pay or 
do many have to stand during the rush hours ? 

Are the railroad and electric stations attractive? 
What do you think could be done to beautify 

Do you know of any city which operates its own 
street railway system? Is the service in that 
city better than the service in yours ? 

Are there any *' jitney busses" in your city? If 
so, how are they regulated and what kind of serv- 
ice do they give ? 

Why is overcrowding in the tenement districts 

6o Community English 

directly caused by the lack of transportation 
facilities ? 

5. Electricity 

Does your city own its own electric light plant? 
If not, who furnishes the light for the streets and 
the houses? 

Are there many unsightly electric poles in the 
streets? Are the company's men permitted to 
cut off branches of beautiful trees to make room 
for electric wires? 

Is it possible to place electric wires underground iri 
pipes or conduits? 

Are the streets sufficiently Kghted to afford protec- 
tion on a dark night? 

Do you use electricity for any other purpose than 
light in your house? 

Can you read the electric meter? Read the meter 
this month and check up the bill sent by the 
electric light company. 

Which is the cleaner and safer to use, electricity or gas ? 

Which is better for street lighting purposes, elec- 
tricity or gas? 

What is the meaning of kilowatt hour, dynamo ? 

What power drives the dynamo in the electric light 
plant? Is a gas engine, gasohne engine, steam 
engine, or water power used? 

Name three electric cooking appliances and three 
electric heating appliances. 

Does the appearance of your electric Hght plant and 
electric light office add to the beauty of your city? 

Oral and Written Reports 6i 

If not, can you suggest some way to make the place 
more attractive? 

6. Parks 

Why are parks especially needed to protect the 

health of people, particularly of children? 
Why are many small parks particularly necessary 

in the crowded tenement districts? 
How many parks are there in your city? How far 

do you live from a park? 
Where does the money come from which keeps up 

the parks? 
Who is the park commissioner? 
What is the chief purpose of a park — use or beauty ? 
Are there " Keep off the grass " signs in the parks of 

your city? Are the signs observed? 
What opportunities for recreation are provided by 

the park commissioners? Are there opportunities 

for golf, tennis, baseball, and football? 
Are free motion pictures regularly shown in any of 

the parks ? 
Are band concerts provided by the city? 
Has any effort been made to connect the parks by 

beautiful boulevards or roadways? 
Are refreshments or lunches sold by the city at any 

of the parks? 
What can you say of the financial value of real 

estate near the parks ? 
Are the parks used in winter ? 
Which is of greater value to the city — one large 

park or several small ones? 

62 Community English 

Are the parks Uttered with paper? What can you 
do to help improve the appearance of the parks ? 

Is there a section of your city which needs a park 
but which has none? 

How do parks help create a higher standard of 
citizenship ? 

7. Municipal Playgrounds 

How many public playgrounds are there in your 

When and how were they established? 

How far do you live from a playground ? 

Why are playgrounds especially necessary for 
children who ordinarily have to play in the dirty 
streets or alleys? 

Are the city playgrounds in charge of athletic 
instructors ? 

How many seesaws, sand boxes, swings, sKdes, swim- 
ming pools, and bathhouses are provided for use? 

Has any provision been made for baseball and 
basket ball? 

Is the playground flooded in winter for skating 
purposes ? 

Where does the money come from to maintain these 
playgrounds ? 

Are seats and benches provided for the use of 
mothers and other onlookers? 

Are there ^' Keep off the grass " signs? Why do 
you think they should or should not be observed ? 

Is the purpose of the playground beauty or useful- 

Oral and Written Reports 63 

Is there any dumping place in your city which could 
be used to advantage as a municipal playground ? 

Is there any land containing tumble-down buildings 
which could be used as a small park or play- 
ground ? 

Public Library 

How does a pubhc library help to make better 
citizens ? 

When was a public library first established in your 

What, in brief, is the history of the library in your 

How is the Hbrary maintained? Who pays the 
taxes ? 

How is the building Kghted ? How is it ventilated ? 

Is the Hbrary centrally located? 

How many seats are there in the reading room ? 

Who is the librarian? What are his duties? 

Is the library building ever used for any other purpose 
than as a hbrary — for example, is it used for 
club meetings, art gallery, or lecture hall? 

Is the hbrary building attractive? Can you think 
of any improvement which would add to its ap- 

How many books are there in the library? 

How many books were drawn out last year ? 

Who chooses the books? 

Who engages the hbrarian and his assistants? 

Who owns the books? Why should the books be 
used carefully? 

64 Community English 

Are you permitted to go into the shelf room to select 

your book? 
Has the hbrary a separate department for children? 
How many branch libraries are maintained ? 
Are special talks given by your teachers on how to 

use the library? 
Does the pubHc library loan books to your school 

Wliy are the trustees of the library anxious that the 

books be used? 
Why is it necessary and proper for the library to 

demand a fine when a book has been misused ? 
What is a Carnegie Ubrary? 
What is the meaning of : reference books, travehng 

library, circulating library, card catalogue, period- 
icals, and card index? 

9. Hospital 

Is there a pubHc hospital in your city? 

When was it established ? 

Who is at the head of the hospital? 

Where does the money come from which maintains it ? 

How many cases were treated last year ? 

Describe the building or buildings. 

Are the surroundings attractive? 

Are there special wards for special cases ? 

What conveniences are provided for the patients ? 

Has a special home been provided for the nurses ? 

When are visitors admitted? 

How large is this year's class of student nurses? 

What is a hospital cKnic ? 

Oral and Written Reports 65 

Is a clinic maintained in your city? 

What is the meaning of city nurse, emergency aid, 
ambulance, visiting physician, and city dispen- 

10. Public Schools 

How many public schools are there in your city? 
How many teachers are employed? How many men, 

how many women? 
How many pupils were in attendance last year? 
How much money did it cost to maintain the 

schools last year? 
Where did the money come from? 
About how many hours are the buildings used each 

Are the schools in your city ever used as social 

centers ? 
How are the rooms lighted, heated, ventilated? 
Where are the school playgrounds? How are they 

equipped ? 
When was the first school established in your city? 
If possible, describe how one day was spent in that 

old-time school. 
How many weeks are the schools in session each 

What are the qualifications of the teachers? 
How is the course of study planned ? 
Do the schools of your city get any state money? 

If so, how much? 
Are textbooks free in your school ? 
Who is Superintendent of Schools in your city? 

66 Community English 

What are his duties? 

Are you required to go to school until you are 
sixteen years of age? 

How much money does your city have to pay to 
educate a pupil from kindergarten through high 

Of how many members is the board of education com- 
posed ? 

What is meant by the following : vocational school, 
technical school, elementary school, secondary 
school, parent-teachers association? 

Are there any night schools in your city? 

Why is free education of boys and girls a good in- 
vestment for the community? 

II. Municipal Markets 

Is there a municipal market in your city? 

Is the market centrally located ? 

Why does your city maintain this market? 

Describe the market building. 

Can you suggest any method of making the building 
more attractive? 

When was the market opened? 

By whom is it managed? 

Do all classes of people buy at this market ? 

Is it operated at a gain for the city? 

Is the market clean and sanitary? 

Mention several different kinds of foods sold in the 

Do you know any one who is opposed to the munici- 
pal market? 

Oral and Written Reports 67 

Has the price of food in your city been reduced since 

the opening of the market ? 
How does the market benefit the producer of the 

What is the meaning of middleman ? 


I. To make an investigation of the government of your 
community and to give a short report of the investigation. 

Suggestions. — There are three departments of govern- 
ment in every city or town. The legislative department is 
composed of the law makers, the executive department is 
composed of the law enforcers, and the judicial department 
is composed of the law explainers who are usually called 

Your community may not be governed by the officials 
mentioned in the questions suggested in this Undertaking, 
but you are governed by law makers, by law enforcers, and 
by law explainers. The investigation, therefore, of the 
government of your community should prove as interesting 
as the Undertaking described in detail here. 

Before you complete your work you should plan an 
excursion to the court house or city hall, but do not go 
unless you are chaperoned by your teacher or some older 
person, and be sure that all arrangements for your visit 
are made in advance. 

You may substitute the word town or village for the word 
city in this Undertaking. 

Suggestive questions. — The following questions are 
based upon the work of the various departments of govern- 

68 Community English 

ment. They are merely suggestive in nature and may be 
omitted or used as you choose. 

1 . Legislative Department 

What are the law makers of your city called? How 

are they chosen? 
How many law makers are there in your city? Do 

they represent districts or wards or the whole city? 
What are the qualifications of a law maker? What 

is his term of office? 
What salary does he receive? 
When do the law makers meet for conference ? 
What are their chief duties? Why do they have a 

right to tax the people of your city? 
What is the meaning of city charter and city budget ? 
When was a charter granted to your city? 

2. Executive Department 

Who is the mayor of your city? If your city has no 
mayor, who is the city manager? How was he 
elected or appointed? What is his term of office? 
What salary does he receive and where does the 
money come from with which to pay the salary? 

What are the most important duties of the mayor? 
Has he the right to veto a bill or the power to 
appoint men to assist him in his work? 

Do appointments by the mayor have to be approved 
by the law makers ? 

Who are some of the other law enforcers in your city? 
Make a list of the different boards or committees or 

Oral and Written Reports 69 

Who is city auditor? What are his duties, his salary, 
and his term of ojffice? 

A. Ci\dl Service Commission 

What is the meaning of civil service ? 
Has your city a civil service commission? 
What is meant by a civil service examination? 
How often are such examinations held in your 

Who may take these examinations? 
Of what advantage is civil service to an employee ? 

B. Health Department 

Who are your local health officers ? 

Mention several health laws in force in your 

What is the death rate in your city? 
What is the meaning of vaccination, quarantine, 

epidemic ? 
Why does the health department emphasize the 

importance of fresh air, wise eating, and cleanH- 

What is the work of the health department when a 

contagious disease appears? 
Has this department ever carried on a '' Swat the 

fly " campaign? 
Are there any laws regulating the sale of pure 

drugs in your city? 
What are the duties of the milk inspector? 
Why is a carload of meat sometimes condemned 

by the food inspector? 
Why do food inspectors examine both fresh and 

canned goods? 

70 Community English 

C. Police Department 

In your city are policemen elected or appointed? 

Are they controlled by the city or by the state? 

Who is the chief or superintendent of police ? 

What are his most important duties ? 

What is meant by pohce regulation ? 

What are the duties of police magistrates? 

Why are policemen often called the city's soldiers? 

How do policemen regulate trafhc? 
'' What is the meaning of each of the following: 

patrolmen, roundsmen, sergeant, harbor police, 
mounted police, and motor cycle squad? 

What are the chief qualifications of a good police- 

What is the duty of a poHceman when he finds a 
lost child? 

D. Public Service Department 
a. Garbage disposal 

How often does the cartman come to your house 

to collect garbage and rubbish? 
Do you put the garbage in one can, the ashes 

in another, and the refuse in still another? 

How much does it cost your city each year to 

dispose of its garbage? 
Is garbage collection in the hands of a private 

concern which sells its service to the city? 
Do you know of any vacant lots which are used 

as a dumping ground for refuse? 
Does your city- make an effort to sell part of 

the waste material collected? 

Oral and Written Reports 71 

Has your city a garbage disposal plant? 

Are ashes used by the city for grading streets ? 
b. Street cleaning 

How does the cleanliness of your city depend 
upon the work of the street cleaning depart- 
ment ? ' 

Why is it important that the streets of a city 
be well paved ? 

What methods of street cleaning are used 
in your locality? Which of the following 
methods is most sanitary: hand sweeping, 
rotary broom sweeping, or flushing? 

How much does it cost your city yearly to keep 
the streets clean? Where does the money 
come from to maintain this department? 

Has the health officer anything to do with the 
work of the street cleaning department? 

How is the work of the street department 
managed ? 

Are the streets sprinkled during the summer? 

What is done with a heavy fall of snow ? 

Are there city laws against throwing refuse into 
the streets? 

What is your part in keeping the city's streets 
clean ? 
Fire Department 

What, in brief, is the history of the fire department 
in your city? When was it organized, and 
when was the first engine purchased ? 
What is the most common cause of fires in your 


72 Community English 

Why should the doors of all public buildings open 

outward ? 
Are all the public buildings in your city provided 

with fire escapes? 
Why should every theater have a fire curtain ? 
What salary are the firemen in your city paid? 

Where does the money come from to maintain 

this department? 
Do the firemen receive pensions for long and 

faithful service? 
Why is it wrong to throw a lighted match into a 

pile of dry leaves, or to throw a match into a 

waste basket? 
Do you know how to use the fire escape on your 

school building? 
Do you know how to ring in an alarm of fire ? 
In case of fire in a motion picture theater, what 

would you do? 
What is a chemical engine, a steam fire engine, a 

hook and ladder automobile truck, a water 

tower, a life net? 
Can you suggest any method of improving the 

appearance of an engine house in your com- 
munity ? 
F. Department of City Streets 

Why are the building and care of city streets 

Under whose direction is this work carried on in 

your city? 
Where does the money come from to pay for the 

street paving? 

Oral and Written Reports 73 

Why should the man in charge of this work be an ex- 
pert in road building? 
Why are paved streets of importance to the farmer, to 

the automobihst, to the merchant, to the church, 

and to the school? 
How do well paved streets increase the value of real 

estate in a city? 
How many kinds of paving materials are used in your 

Are the pavements in the business section of the 

same material as those in the residential section? 
Are the streets of your city lined with beautiful 

trees ? 

Judicial Department 

Who are your city judges? How many are there? 
How are they selected or appointed? What is 
their term of ofhce? 

What is the meaning of '' petty crimes and mis- 

How do the juvenile courts try to prevent boys and 
girls from becoming criminals? In what way is a 
juvenile court unlike an ordinary court? 

What is the meaning of each of the following : arrest, 
warrant, bail? 

What is the difference between a police court and a 
criminal court? 

Why are the police courts not classed under judicial 
department courts? 

What is the meaning of each of the following : proba- 
tion officer, house of correction? 

74 Community English 

//. To give an oral report of a current event. 

Are you interested in up-to-date items of interest? 
Where are such items usually reported? Are you in the 
habit of reading one good newspaper regularly? Do you 
talk over news items with your parents and older people? 
Do you discuss them with boys and girls of your own age? 
How would you like to have a regular day for discussing 
these up-to-date, or current events, in class? 

In many schools, current event day is the most interesting 
day of the week. Clippings and pictures describing and 
illustrating the items of interest are brought into class 
and displayed upon the bulletin board, and one section of 
the class scrapbook is set aside as a permanent record for 
the most important clippings. At first, current events 
may be reported which are not worth discussing, but both 
class and teacher act as a board of censors for each event 

Should you decide to conduct a regular current event day, 
you may be helped by studying the following instructions : 

Instructions. — 

1. You may choose any current event which interests 

2. Be prepared to tell your classmates about this event. 

3. You will be limited by timekeepers to two minutes 
for your discussion. 

4. After choosing your event, ask yourself this question : 
*' Will all my classmates be interested in this event? " 

5. At first, you may speak from an outline if you wish. 

6. At the beginning of your summary, state the source 
of your information. Say for example, " In the St. Louis 

Oral and Written Reports 75 

Globe- Democrat of October fifteenth, I read an interesting 
account of an air voyage from London to New York 

7. While giving your summary, be sure that you remem- 
ber to stand erect, to face the class, and to speak slowly and 
distinctly enough for all to hear. 

8. If the topic you have prepared is discussed before you 
are called upon, arise, state that fact, but state also the 
source of your information and add any other items of 

///. To investigate and report on one of the important 
industries in your community. 

Suggestions. - — Doubtless there are one or more impor- 
tant industries in your community of which you can make 
an investigation. It is well to remember, however, that a 
visit must not be made to any industry until arrangements 
have been made with some official of the company. Your 
teacher will accompany you upon your visit. The following 
list of industries is intended to be merely suggestive of some 
industry in your own locality. You may choose any of 
these: a furniture factory, a printing estabhshment, a 
paper mill, a shoe factory, a banking house, a depart- 
ment store, a restaurant, a stone quarry, an ice manu- 
facturing plant, a meat market, a model dairy, a meat 
packing establishment, a large farm, or a telephone 

/ V. To give a brief report of an interview with some suc- 
cessful person in your community. 

Suggestions. — Perhaps some of the following questions 
may help you as you plan your interview : 

76 Community English 

What work does he do ? 
What decided him to do this kind of work? 
What are his pleasures ? 
Why is his work successful? 
What service does he render to his fellow men ? 
Has he a favorite motto or rule of conduct? 
Has he a special message for you to carry to your class- 
mates ? 

V. To make a report on a job in shop work or manual 

Suggestive questions. — 

What was the job? For whom was it done? 

What materials were used? 

Were there any trimmings? 

What tools or machines were used? 

VI. To investigate and make a report on the development 
of the telephone. 

Suggestions. — For the development of the telephone you 
may substitute any of the following subjects : 

The development of the lumber industry in the United 

The agricultural development of the United States 

The development in methods of printing 

The development of the motion picture 

The evolution of methods of travel 

The development of the automobile 

The development of the aluminum industry 

Improvements in farm machinery 

The development of the oil industry 

Oral and Written Reports 


The development of the iron and steel industry 

The development of the textile industries (woolen and 

cotton goods) 

The development of methods of communication 
The development in methods of lighting or heating 
The development of commerce or industry in your 


Evolution in food products (canned foods, etc.) 

VII. To give a report of work undertaken in connection 
with any home project in agriculture. For the words any home 
project in agriculture you may substitute any of the following: 
any experiment performed in the laboratory, any work under- 
taken in domestic science or household arts, or any lecture or 
musical entertainment attended by you. 

VIII. To make a report on any book read outside of class, 
or to report on the outside reading you have done during the 

Suggestions. — 

1. Keep a record of each book read. 

2. Outline your record in the following manner, but 
when your report is given state your answers in complete 

Title of 






Main Idea 
OF Book 


yS Community English 

3. Under the heading " setting " state time and place 
of action. . 

4. Under the heading '* opinions " give your reasons 
for liking or disliking the story. Be sure to state your own 
ideas. They are of far more importance in your report 
than the opinions of any other person. 

5. If possible, arrange to have one or more shelves in 
your classroom devoted to a class circulating library. 

6. Give each pupil a chance to bring a book for this 

7. Each book must be approved by the teacher. 

8. Arrange to have a different pupil in charge of these 
books during the several periods of the day. 

9. If you are chosen to act as librarian during one of 
these periods, take especial pains to record neatly in a note- 
book the name of the book borrowed, the date, and the 
name of the borrower. 

10. Draw up such other rules and regulations as your 
class thinks necessary. 

11. At the end of the term you may take your book home 
or you may leave it to form the basis of a permanent 

12. Remember that your book may be lost. You must 
take the responsibihty of loaning your book to your class- 

IX. To look up any of the following subjects in an en- 
cyclopedia and to make an outline report of the material given: 
Hudson Tube, aeroplane, subway, submarine, gyroscope, 
cyclometer, nitroglycerine, artificial ice making, Panama 
Canal Locks, or the Erie Barge Canal. 

Oral and Written Reports 79 

Suggestions. — After reading through the article care- 
fully, jot down notes of the main points to be remembered. 
Then arrange your notes in the form of an outHne or plan. 
From the great mass of material given it is sometimes 
difficult to select the important facts, so it is well to read the 
article several times before you complete your report. 

X. To make a report in outline form of material collected 
for a biographical sketch. 

Suggestions. — Before you begin the work of this Under- 
taking, look up the meaning of the word biography. What 
is the difference between a biography and an autobiography? 

T . Choose your subject from the following Hst : 

A biography of your father or your mother 

A biography of Christopher Columbus 

John Smith 

George Washington 

Samuel Adams 

Henry Clay 

Thomas Jefferson 

Benjamin Franklin 

Patrick Henry 

Alexander Hamilton 

Daniel Webster 

Elias Howe 

Eli Whitney 

Robert Fulton 

Nathaniel Hawthorne 

Washington Irving 

John Greenleaf Whittier 

8o Community English 

John Paul Jones 
Theodore Roosevelt 
Thomas A. Edison 
Henry W. Longfellow 
S. F. B. Morse 
Susan B. Anthony 
Eugene Field 
Henry Hudson 
Roger Williams 
Peter Stuyvesant 
Helen Keller 
William Penn 
Frances E. Willard 

2. Find out all you can about your subject. 

3. In a small book, jot down notes indicating the most 
important facts to remember. Expand your notes to form 
your permanent outline. 

4. Ask yourself these questions: what were the main 
ideas, and what were the less important ideas? Mention 
these ideas in their proper order. 

5. Consider which thoughts belong together and arrange 
them according to this connection. 

6. Number each of the main headings with a Roman 
numeral I, II, III, IV. These numerals generally represent 

7. The word or words directly following the numerals 
tell what the paragraph is about. 

8. Underneath the main headings and farther to the 
right, place the details which explain the headings. Indi- 
cate these details or subdivisions by letters, A, B, C, 

Oral and Written Reports 8i 

9. Observe the rules of indentation and capitalization 
and make your outline as brief as is consistent with clearness. 
10. When arranging your material you may use the 
following general outline : 

Plan for biographical sketch. — No biographical sketch 
can be made to fit exactly this plan, but as a guide to 
arrangement of material you will find it helpful : 

Introduction. — Name of person, why famous. 

Discussion. — When and where he lived. The education, 
the favorite occupations, and the habits of the boy. 

The chief events of his life as a citizen, given in the order 
of their occurrence. 

Chief characteristics. 

Death, when and where. 

Conclusio?!. — Results of his life upon his own develop- 

Service to others. 

Read over the following outline carefully ; it may serve 
as a guide for you when preparing your biographical sketch : 

The Story of Louisa May Alcott 

Introduction. ^American author popular with old and 
young for more than forty years. 

Birth and Infancy. — • German town, Pennsylvania, No- 
vember, 1832 ; moved to Boston, 1834; moved to Concord, 
1840 ; poverty ; father was philosophical writer and educator. 

Childhood and Youth. — Educated by father ; fondness 
for reading, writing, and composition ; favorite occupations 
— running, jumping fences, cHmbing trees, and acting plays 
in barn ; a tomboy in habits. 

82 Community English 

Chief Events of Life. — Seven happy years at ''Hill- 
side " ; continued poverty ; apparent failure of stories ; vari- 
ous occupations — ^ school teacher, seamstress, companion, 
household servant; final success of Little Men, Little 
Women, An Old-Fashioned Girl, and hundreds of short 
stories published in St. Nicholas and TJie Youth's Cofnpanion. 

Death. — At Boston, Massachusetts, March 6, 1888; 
mourned by thousands. 

Conclusion. — Characteristics and personal appearance ; 
money obtained from sale of books used in adding to com- 
fort and happiness of many people. 

XL To make a report in outline form of material collected 
for a historical sketch. 

Suggestions. — After selecting your subject and gather- 
ing information about it, arrange your material in the same 
manner as suggested in the Undertaking just preceding. 
You may choose any of the following subjects : 

An Outline for the History of Your Own Community 

The Landing of the Pilgrims 

The Boston Tea Party 

The Battle of Lexington 

The Building of the Erie Canal 

The Search by Americans for the North Pole 

The Panama Canal 

The Growth of a Great City (New York, Chicago, etc.) 

Life on a Virginia Plantation 

The Burgoyne Campaign 

The Louisiana Purchase 

The Story of the Building of a Railroad 

Oral and Written Reports 83 

Life on a Western Wheat Farm 

The Pittsburgh Steel Industry 

Shipbuilding at Fore River 

The Journey of Lewis and Clark 

America's Part in the World War 

America and the League of Nations 

Early-Day Amusements 

The Struggle of American Women for the Ballot 

Plan for historical sketch. — ^ You may arrange your topics 
according to the following plan, if you wish, using exact, 
expressive words : 

Introduction. — Your subject, why important. 

Discussion. — What led to the subject discussed? 
Principal characters in the event. Details, given in order 
of occurrence. 

Conclusion. — Effect produced — upon the life of the 
time and upon the future history of the country. 

Before writing your historical sketch, read carefully the 
following outhne : 

Burgoyne's Invasion 

Introduction. — Important event of Revolution. Its 
influence on the result. 

Purpose. — To divide the country Burgoyne went south 
to meet Clinton, who went north from New York City. 

Time and Place. June-October, 1777. Canada; New 
York ; Vermont. 

Principal Characters. — Stark, Gates, Schuyler; Bur- 
goyne, St. Neger, Baum. Duty of each. 

84 Community English 

Details. — Eight thousand men, English, Hessians, In- 
dian Allies; route by way of Lake Champlain and the 
Hudson River; capture of Forts Ticonderoga, Crown 
Point, and Edward. Battles of Saratoga. Surrender of 

Conclusion. Americans encouraged ; France acknowl- 
edged independence. Victory was greatest influence in 
ending Revolution. 

A class sketchbook. — If, after making your outlines for 
biographical and historical sketches, you write the sketches, 
they may be arranged and filed in a class sketchbook. Such 
a book is in form like the class booklet and is made by a 
group of pupils from the class chosen to do this work. 


If you are to become a well-informed instead of an 
ignorant person, you will need to become skillful in handling 
the tools you have to use ; for not until then will you be 
able to undertake new tasks alone. You must know how 
to use letters, words, sentences, paragraphs, and books. 
The dictionary, encyclopedia, atlas, index, and gazetteer 
are treasure houses of valuable information. Indeed, so 
valuable a tool is the dictionary that you will need to use 
it almost every day. Does it not seem worth while, there- 
fore, to learn how to use it efficiently? Fortunately, you 
will find that learning how to use the dictionary and other 
books of reference is not a difficult task, but like piano 
playing it requires practice. Many boys and girls have 
greatly enjoyed doing the work suggested in this your 


To collect data from reference hooks: the dicticn- 
ary, the encyclopedia, the gazetteer, the atlas, the card 
catalogue, the dictionary of quotations, a general maga- 
zine index, a book index, a table of contents, Who's 
Who, and World Almanac. 

Suggestive questions. — Be prepared to answer the 
following questions : 



The Use of Reference Books 87 

1. What is a dictionary? Name three large dictionaries 
you have used. 

2. What five things about a word can you find out ])y 
looking it up in a dictionary? 

3. What does the word vocabulary mean? 

4. What are dictionary guide words? How do they 
lielp you locate a word ? 

5. What do these marks mean when they are placed 
above a word, (0, CO? 

6. Is the accent mark used with words of one syllable? 

7. In a dictionary, the first letter of each word is 
arranged alphabetically ; how are the second, the third, and 
the fourth letters arranged? 

8. What is the correct pronunciation of the following: 
inquiry, address, alhes, acchmated, apparatus, parochial, 
architect, ordeal, illustrate, accent, magazine, government, 
recess, municipal, conduit, and oleomargarine? 

Q. Which of the following words are written as one word 
with a hyphen, which are written as a compound word 
without a hyphen, and which are written as two separate 
words : post office, post master, air ship, base ball, basket 
ball, note book, scrap book, dress maker, to day, to morrow, 
sun beam, head ache, horse power, all right, work shop, 
every day, and rail road? 

10. What do these marks mean (— ), (^), when placed 
above a vowel, in words? 

11. What is a word called which has almost the same 
meaning as another word? Give ten examples of such 

12. What is a word called which has the same sound as 
another word, but is difterent in meaning? 

88 Community English 

Word contests. — At least once a month, be prepared 
to take part in one or another of these word contests. You 
will win the contests more easily if you learn to open the 
dictionary as nearly as possible to the first letter of the word 
pronounced, and then turn the leaves rapidly to the right 
or left. Use either hand and turn the pages with the index 

The first contest may be conducted in the following 
manner : 

1. Upon the teacher's desk at the front of the room, 
place a large dictionary. 

2. Ask your teacher to pronounce a fist of simple words 
— such as boy, dog, horse, cow. 

3. Await your turn to go to the dictionary, but as soon 
as called upon, go quickly. 

4. When you say, '' ready," the teacher will pronounce a 

5. Find that word in the shortest possible time. 

6. Two of your classmates will act as timekeepers. 
Each must be provided with a watch having a second hand. 

7. As soon as you have found the word assigned to you, 
one of the timekeepers will write your name upon the black- 
board, and after your name will write the number of seconds 
or minutes that it takes you to find the word. 

8. The pupil who requires the fewest seconds in which to 
locate a word, wins the contest. 

9. In every contest your teacher will act as referee. 

The second contest is almost as interesting as the first : 

I. Try to arrange alphabetically, before any of your 
classmates can do so, a Hst of words written upon the 

The Use of Reference Books 89 

blackboard by your teacher. The words may be taken 
from the dictionary or the telephone directory and time- 
keepers will keep the score as in the former contest. 

2. There may be several different kinds of lists of words, 
for example : 

a. When the first letters are not alike 

b. When only the first letters are alike 

c. When the first two letters are alike 

d. When all letters are ahke until the ninth or tenth, 
as entertaining, entertainment 

The third word contest is simple in nature : 

I. Try to write the greatest number of synonyms for 

each word in a list of words, placed upon the blackboard by 

your teacher. 

Additional suggestions. — In a notebook keep a New 
Word List. Write down at least one new word every day. 
Use this word in your conversation and in your written 
work until you have made it your own. For one week, 
make a hst of the words you hear mispronounced. Bring 
this list to class and, as you read the list, correct the mis- 
takes. Be prepared to give reasons for your corrections. 

Instructions for use of encyclopedias. — 

I. Go to any library and ask to see an encyclopedia. 
Glance at several pages to see what kind of book it is. 
Be prepared to answer the following questions concerning 

a. What is an encyclopedia? 

b. Is it one book or more than one? 

c. How are the articles arranged? 

d. Can you find a subject easily? 

90 Community English 

e. Are the articles longer or shorter than those in a 

/. Do the articles explain one word or one subject? 
g. Are many pictures used in illustration? 

2. Read over any one article which interests you. 
Write down, in not more than two sentences, the most 
important fact or truth in the article. 

3. In class announce the subject of the article you read 
and state the important fact about it. State the name of 
the encyclopedia you used. 

4. Remember that it is easy to locate a subject in an 
encyclopedia but that it is difficult to select the most im- 
portant fact about that subject. 

Questions on other reference books. — 

1. What is an index? Is it found at the front or at the 
back of a book? 

2. Does every book have an index? How is an index 

3. How is a table of contents different from an index? 
Why do many books have both? 

4. If you wish to locate a fact very quickly, which do 
you consult first, table of contents or index? 

Y 5. Examine any two magazines. Do they have index 
and table of contents? 

6. What is a general magazine index? Of what use is 
it in helping to locate some definite magazine article, for 
example, a discussion of wireless telephones ? 

7. What is a gazetteer? Where is it found in the dic- 
tionary, at the front or at the back? Is it a separate part 
of the dictionary? 

The Use of Reference Books 91 

8. What is an atlas? 

9. What three questions about a book does a card 
catalogue answer for you ? 

10. Suppose you wish to know the area and population 
of Alaska. Where can you obtain the information? 

11. Suppose you are fond of a certain quotation but do 
not know who wrote it. How can you find out the name 
of the author? 

12. Imagine that, while preparing for a debate, it 
becomes necessary for you to know the names of the Secre- 
tary of State, the Secretary of War, and the Chief Justice 
of the Supreme Court. Of what ser\ice would a Congres- 
sional Directory be in helping you to obtain the desired 
information ? 

13. Pretend that your class wishes to stage a pageant 
written by Percy MacKaye. It is necessary for you to 
obtain Mr. MacKaye's permission. How can Who's Who 
help you to obtain Mr. MacKaye's correct address? What 
other interesting information about ^Ir. MacKaye can you 
obtain from Who's Who? 

14. Look up the words reference books in the index of this 
book ; then look up the same words in its table of contents. 
Note where you found the words more easily. 

15. Find the name of your own city or town in an atlas. 

16. Ask your teacher to take your class to a library and 
there give you a talk on the use of reference books. If you 
wish, you may choose a committee from your class to 
request the librarian to give this talk. 

17. Be prepared to look up in reference books, certain 
questions assigned by your teacher. Keep a record of the 
time required to locate the references assigned. 

92 Community English 

1 8. If your teacher wishes, you may help her make a 
collection of interesting pictures and clippings for clas^;. 
reference. This work should be done in connection with 
your bulletin board Undertaking, but should be indexed 
and arranged as is a library book. 

19. Look up any three subjects in the World Almanac. 
then assign the same three subjects to one of your class- 
mates and ask him to report to you the length of time 
required for him to find them. 


Have you ever stood before a store window or great 
billboard and gazed with keenest interest at the pictured 
description of a circus? If you have, you know that such 
wordless descriptions can give a great deal of information 

*'A11 the sights at the animal show, 
Where lions and bears sit on dining room chairs, 
Where a camel is able to stand on the table, 
Where monkeys and seals all travel on wheels, 
And a Zulu baboon rides a baby balloon." 

Perhaps, more recently, you have read a poster announcing 
the latest Motion Picture. At any rate, you know that a 
poster is a large bill or placard displayed in some public 

Doubtless you would enjoy making posters similar to 
these : of your favorite house, or of Uncle Sam, or of Hia- 
watha. Possibly you would Kke better to help your class- 
mates make a series of posters descriptive of the fur-bearing 
animals of North America or of the production of maple 
sugar in your own community. Indeed, you will have no 
difficulty in choosing a subject which interests you, and the 
making of the poster will prove interesting work, but to 
write the paragraph of description, which each poster must 
contain, may prove a more difficult task. In order that 
you may know how to write your paragraph it will be 


94 Community English 

necessary to read carefully the following selections and to 
answer certain questions concerning them: 

Specimen paragraphs. — 

Japanese Books 

Japanese Books are very odd-looking affairs to us. Not only 
are they printed in very large characters, but they seem quite 
upside down. To find the first page you turn to the end of the 
book, and you read it backwards to the front page. Again you 
do not read from lett to right, as in our fashion, but from right 
to left. Nor is this all : for the lines do not run across the page, 
but up and down. Altogether, a Japanese book is at first a 
very puzzling affair. When the writing lesson comes, the 
children have no pens; they use brushes instead. They dip 
their brushes in the ink, and paint the words one under the 
other, beginning at the top right-hand corner and finishing at 
the bottom left-hand corner. If they have an address to write 
on the envelope, they turn that upside down and begin with the 
name of the country and finish with the name of the person, — 
England, London, Brown John Mr. 

John Finnemore : Japan 

When the author wrote this paragraph, he arranged his 
ideas according to a plan, like this : 

Japanese Books 
I. Reading books are odd, for, 

a. They are printed in large characters 

b. The front page is at the back of the book 

c. They read frorn left to right 

d. Their Knes run up and down 

Posters and Charts . 95 

2. Their writing books arc odd, for, 

a. The words are painted instead of written 

b. The address is written backward 

You will also note that in form this paragraph is like a 
tree. It has one main idea as the tree has one trunk, and 
all of the sentences grow out of that idea, as the branches 
grow from the trunk of a tree. If you were to draw a 
diagram of this paragraph your sketch might look like this : 

g6 Community English 

An Orderly School 

Never was seen such an orderly school. Not a boy or girl 
moved, or uttered a whisper. The Griffin climbed into the 
master's seat, his wide wings spread on each side of him, be- 
cause he could not lean back in his chair while they stuck out 
behind, and his great tail coiled around, in front of the desk, 
the barbed end sticking up, ready to rap any boy or girl who 
might misbehave. The Griffin now addressed the scholars, 
telling them that he intended to teach them while their master 
was away. In speaking he endeavored to imitate, as far as 
possible, the mild and gentle tones of the Minor Canon, but it 
must be admitted that in this he was not very successful. He 
had paid a good deal of attention to the studies of the school, 
and he determined not to teach them anything new, but to 
review them in what they had been studying; so he called up 
the various classes, and questioned them upon their previous 
lessons. The children racked their brains to remember what 
they had learned. They Were so afraid of the Griffin's dis- 
pleasure that they recited as they had never recited before. 

Frank R. Stockton : The Griffin and the Minor Canon 

Is this a paragraph ? Where can you find a definition of 
paragraph? In the model given, underscore the topic sen- 
tence. Is this sentence at the beginning, middle, or end? 
Do all other sentences grow out of the topic sentence ? 

The First Schoolhouses 

The first schoolhouses in the Middle colonies were of logs 
almost exclusively. The earlier ones had a rough wooden floor, 
if they had any floor at all. Often there was only the bare 
earth which the children's feet soon rendered very dusty. On 
occasion the youngsters would purposely stir up this dust in 
clouds to annoy the teacher and amuse their fellows. Sticks 

Posters and Charts .97 

were inserted between the logs around the sides of the room at a 
convenient height, and boards were nailed on them to serve as 
desks. Roofs were of bark, and at one end of the building was 
a chimney of short logs laid up cobhouse fashion and daubed 
with clay. Many of the schoolhouses had no glass in their 
windows. But the paper that served instead was greased with 
lard to make it transparent and less easily affected by water. 
Clifton Johnson : Old Time Schools and School Books 

Draw some sort of diagram to show that all the sentences 
in this paragraph grow out of just one idea. Where is the 
topic sentence in this paragraph? What other name might 
be given to the topic sentence? 

A Scene on Cape Cod 

The little toy windmill was one of a dozen, all fastened to the 
top rail of the fence and all whirling. Behind the fence, on posts, 
were other and larger windmills; behind these, others larger 
still. Interspersed among the mills were little wooden sailors 
swinging paddles; weather vanes in the shapes of wooden 
whales, swordfish, ducks, crows, seagulls ; circles of Httle wooden 
profile sailboats made to chase each other round and round a 
central post. All of these were painted in gay colors, or in 
black and white, and all were in motion. The mills spun, the 
boats sailed round and round, the sailors did vigorous Indian 
club exercises with their paddles. The grass in the little yard 
and the tall hollyhocks in the beds at its sides swayed and bowed 
and nodded. Beyond, seen over the edge of the bluff and 
stretching to the horizon, the blue and white waves leaped and 
danced and sparkled. As a picture of movement and color 
and joyful bustle the scene was inspiring ; children, viewing it 
for the first time, almost invariably danced and waved their 
arms in sympathy. Summer visitors, loitering idly by, suddenly 

98 Community English 

became fired with the desire to set about doing something, some- 
thing energetic. 

At the rear of the little yard, and situated perhaps fifty feet 
from the edge of the high sand bluff leading down precipitously 
to the beach, was a shingled building, whitewashed, and with a 
door, painted green, and four windows on the side toward the 
road. A clamshell walk led from the gate to the doors. Over 
the door was a sign, very neatly lettered, as follows: "J. 
Edgar W. Winslow. Mills For Sale." In the lot next to 
that, where the little shop stood, was a small, old-fashioned 
story-and-a-half Cape Cod house, painted a speckless white, with 
vivid green blinds. The blinds were shut now, for the house 
was unoccupied. House and shop and both yards were neat 
and clean as a New England kitchen. 

Joseph C. Lincoln: Shavings 

Why is this description of a Cape Cod scene especially 
interesting? Does the author change his point of view 
when he describes the rear yard? What are the topic 
sentences of these paragraphs? Where are they? Where 
else might they be and still be in emphatic positions ? 

Having read carefully the preceding model paragraphs 
and having answered the questions based upon them, you 
are now ready for your fifth 


To make an illustrated poster of a person which 
shall contain a descriptive paragraph. 

Instructions for making the poster. — 

I. Upon a sheet of plain, heavy paper about i8X 22 
inches in size, arrange the illustrations, diagrams, written 
paragraphs, and notes which make up your exhibit. 

Posters and Charts 99 

2. This paper may be any hea\y mounting paper such 
as wrapping paper, ingrain wall paper, bogus paper, kraft 
paper, or tailors' pattern paper. 

3. Illustrate your subject with pictures cut from old 
magazines, folders — automobile, steamship, or railroad — 
newspapers, and advertisements. 

4. Prepare a neat, well-written paragraph describing or 
explaining your illustrations. Be sure that you begin the 
first line of the paragraph about an inch to the right of the 
margin. This is called Indentation. 

5. Arrange your exhibit as neatly and artistically as pos- 
sible. Consult your drawing teacher about this if you wish. 

6. Do not show your poster to your teacher or your 
classmates until it is finished. Before you hand it in, make 
sure that it is your best work. The posters will be dis- 
played upon the walls of the classroom and there will be no 
opportunity to make corrections. 

7. Be prepared to discuss the posters submitted by your 
classmates for paragraph form, point of view, clearness, 
neatness, and attractiveness. 

Instructions for making the paragraph. — 

I. Choose from the following list of subjects a title for 
your poster : 

a. Subjects based upon Kterature 

Ichabod Crane Evangeline 

Brom Bones Hiav/atha 

Katrina Van Tassel The Pied Piper 

John Alden Horatius 

Priscilla The Village Blacksmith 

Miles Standish Ivanhoe 


Community English 

b. Subjects based upon history 

Daniel Boone 
Henry W. Longfellow 
John Greenleaf Whittier 
Nathaniel Hawthorne 
JuHa Ward Howe 
Frances E. Willard 
John J. Pershing 
Alexander Hamilton 

George Washington 
Abraham Lincoln 
Theodore Roosevelt 
William McKinley 
Ulysses S. Grant 
Philip Sheridan 
Robert E. Lee 
Herbert Hoover 

c. Subjects based upon geography 

An Eskimo 
An Indian 
A Japanese 
A Chinaman 

d. General subjects 

A Mischievous Boy 
A Boy Scout 
The Postman 
An Organ Grinder 
The Baby 

A Frenchman 
A Belgian Woman 
An Itahan Child 
A Filipino 

An American Soldier or 

Santa Claus 
John Bull 
Uncle Sam 

2. Jot down the most important characteristics of the 
appearance of the person you are to describe. 

3. Give the general impression first, then state the 

4. Arrange the details in some natural order, from foot 
to head or from head to foot. 

5. Try to make your description true to life. 

6. Use very simple, definite words. 

7. Read the following paragraphs and notice whether 

Posters and Charts Id 

the authors mention all these characteristics or only the 
most important: 

age, coloring, size, eyes, clothing, actions, hair. 

Descriptive paragraphs. — 

There were over a dozen children before the footlights. The 
smallest of them was a very, very little girl with long auburn 
hair and black eyes ; such a very little girl that every one in the 
house looked at her first, and then looked at no one else. She 
had big gentle eyes and wonderful dimples, and in the excite- 
ment of the dancing and the singing, her eyes laughed and 
flashed, and the dimples deepened and disappeared and re- 
appeared again. 

Richard Harding Davis : Van Bibber and Others 

Buddy was about twelve years old, and his eyes shone from 
a dirty face Uke two blue patches of summer sky through shower- 
promising clouds. One of his shoes was intended for a male 
person and the other, from which he had removed the high 
heel, had been made for a female. His coat had been cut for a 


John A. Moroso : Biddy and Waffles 

He is hatless and coatless, and his tumbled snow-white hair 

and beard are like a halo about his head. The sun, peeping over 

the mountain top, seems to caress him. Its rays fall upon him 

like a benediction. 

Elbert Hubbard : John Burroughs 

The door which moved with difficulty on its creaking and 
rusty hinges, being forced quite open, a square and sturdy Httle 
urchin became apparent, with cheeks as red as an apple. He was 
clad in a blue apron, very wide and short trousers, shoes some- 
what out at the toes, and a straw hat with his curly hair stick- 

I02 Community English 

ing through its crevices. A book and a small slate under his 
arm indicated that he was on his way to school. 

Nathaniel Hawthorne : The House of Seven Gables 

Henry Chatillon, our guide and hunter, rode ahead, mounted 
on a hardy Wyandot pony. He wore a white blanket-coat, 
a broad hat of felt, moccasins, and trousers of deer-skin, orna- 
mented along the seams with rows of long fringes. His knife 
was stuck in his belt ; his bullet-pouch and powder-horn hung 
at his side, and his rifle lay before him, resting against the high 

pommel of his saddle. 

Francis Parkman : The Oregon Trail 

It was the most extraordinary-looking little gentleman he had 
ever seen in his life. He had a very large nose, slightly brass- 
colored ; his cheeks were very round, and very red, his eyes 
twinkled merrily through the long silken lashes, his mustaches 
curled twice around like a corkscrew on each side of his mouth, 
and his hair, of a curious mixed pepper-and-salt color, descended 

far over his shoulders. 

John Ruskin : The King oj the Golden River 


I. To make an illustrated poster of a building. 
Instructions. — 

1. Pretend that you are a photographer and take a trip 
through your village or city. 

2. When you have found the building that interests you 
most — the following list of subjects may help you decide 
— jot down its most interesting features, but Do Not 
Move Your Camera, that is, do not change your 
point of view. Your point of view is the place where you 
stand when you see the building. 

Posters and Charts 


List of Subjects : 

My Favorite House A Haunted House 

An Attractive Garage The City Hall 
A Beautiful School Building The Court House 

Our Church The Pubhc Library 

A Business Block The Art Gallery 

The Fire Station The Gymnasium 

The Old Cabin The City Club House 

A Vine-Covered Cottage The Light House 

A Modern Hotel A New Factory Building 

The Old Tavern A Deserted Home 

3. Remember that every building has a roof and walls 
and windows and doors. If you mention only these things 
you will not describe the building at all. Try to pick out 
the features which make the building you are describing 
different from other buildings. 

4. Ask yourself these questions when you are ready to 
write your paragraph: How am I going to begin? What 
am I going to say? How am I going to stop? 

5. Read over the following selections very carefully to 
find out how many of these features are mentioned in each 
paragraph : location, shape, color, size, material of which 
building is made, beauty, and surroundings. 

Buck lived at a big house in the sun-kissed Santa Clara valley. 
Judge Miller's place, it was. called. It stood back from the 
road, half hidden among the trees, through which glimpses 
could be caught of the wide cool veranda that ran around its 
four sides. The house was approached by gravelled driveways 
which wound about through wide-spreading lawns and under 
the interlacing boughs of tall poplars. 

Jack London : The Call of the Wild 

I04 Community English 

Just in the edge of the village, on a four-acre plot of rich level 
ground, stood an old two-story frame cottage. It was not 
beautiful but it was sheltered on the south by three enormous 
maples and its gate fronted upon a double row of New England 
elms whose. branches almost arched the wide street. Its gardens, 
rich in grape vines, asparagus beds, plums, raspberries and other 
fruiting shrubs, appealed with especial power to my mother 
who had lived so long on the sun-baked plains that the sight of 
green things growing was very precious in her eyes. 

Hamlin Garland : A Son of the Middle Border 

A little back from the road, seated directly on the green sod, 
rose a plain wooden building, two stories in front with a long 
roof sloping backwards to within a few feet of the ground. The 
walls were unpainted, but turned by the action of the sun and 
air to a quiet dove or slate color. 

Oliver Wendell Holmes : Elsie Venner 

Past the grey church and down the hill, at the edge of the great 
green meadow, and a bit apart from the village, I found our 
house, with its wooden shutters and its white door closed, a 
quaint brick cottage, waiting for life to come to it again. It 
has a brick front walk, and a brick wall stands about it, save 
at the back, where the stream that skirts the meadow flows at 
the very garden edge. Can you see it, the wistaria, the wood- 
bine, the honeysuckle over the wee porch, the climbing, droop- 
ing, straggling vines that make the whole house look oddly 
like a Skye terrier? 

Margaret Sherwood : The Worn Doorstep 

II. To make a chart or poster dealing with one of the 
important natural jesources of the United States. 

Posters and Charts 


Instructions. — 

1. In this Undertaking you will give a short talk to 
explain your poster but you need not write the paragraph 
of explanation. 

2. Choose as the subject of your poster any important 
natural resource of the United States. The following list 
is merely suggestive. You may use it, or not, as you wish. 















yellow pine 

white pine 


red wood 








Fishing and hunting 




fur-bearing animals 



cotton goods 

farm implements 

boots and shoes 

iron and steel 

silk goods 


woolen goods 








lo6 Community English 


market gardening 


farm products 



3. Find out from your Geography and other books of 
reference all you can about your subject. 

4. Choose which division of the subject you prefer to 
illustrate. In this Undertaking the class will be divided 
into groups and each group will work under the leadership 
of a captain. For example, if your class chooses the subject 
of agriculture, your group might illustrate farm products. 

///. To make a poster of characteristic houses of any 

IV. To make a poster of typical occupations of any 

V. To make a poster of characteristic costumes of any 

VI. To make a poster of typical scenes of any country. 

VII. To make a poster describing an animal. 

Suggestions. — 

A Crouching Lion A Performing Bear 

My Horse The Elephant at the Zoo 

An Intelhgent Dog The Blue Bird 

A Mischievous Cat An Industrious Beaver 

Jim Crow A Prize Cow 

A Wounded Robin A Beautiful Butterfly 

An Ugly Crocodile A Sly Fox 

VIII. To make a poster describing any view or scene. 

Posters and Charts 107 

Suggestions. — 

The Road Through the Woods A Sunny Morning at the 

After a Snow Storm Bridge 

A City Street An Attractive Garden 

TX. To make a chart containing a hill, a receipt, and a 

Suggestions. — 

1. Help organize a temporary class bank. Deposit a 
few cents in this bank ; you will be permitted to withdraw 
the money by check. 

2. Upon a large sheet of any plain, hea\y paper arrange 
the following: 

a bill for at least five items of goods sold to you 

a check drawn on your school bank in payment of the 

a receipt given you by the store when you paid your 


3. Do not show this chart to your teacher until it is 

4. Remember that every itemized bill should contain- 
place, date of sale, name of buyer, name of seller, quantity 
of goods, and price. 

5. Ask your teacher to select a committee who shall 
obtain for the class, blank bank checks and blank forms on 
which to make out bills. 

6. Remember that a check should contain the date, the 
sum of money to be paid, the name of the person to whom 
it is paid, and the name of the person who draws the check. 
The amount of money to be paid should be written twice 
— once in figures and once in words. 


Have you ever attended a business meeting conducted 
by older people? How was the meeting opened? What 
was the presiding officer called? Was an effort made to 
keep track of the various events and discussions? If so, 
who kept such a record? Why were several people not 
permitted to talk at once? What words or phrases, used 
by the leader of the meeting, sounded strange to you ? 

If possible, plan to attend such a meeting and notice 
carefully everything which seems unusual. Talk about 
business meetings with your father, or any other older 
person, and find out why such meetings are necessary. 
Give reasons for and against the plan of conducting your 
class recitations as business meetings. Boys and girls 
about your age are enthusiastic over the opportunity of 
acting as presiding officer of a meeting or as class secretary. 
If yohr class and teacher decide to conduct the class recita- 
tion as a business meeting you will find the following sug- 
gestions helpful when it is your turn to act either as class 
secretary or as chairman of the meeting. 


To conduct the class recitation as a business meeting. 

Suggestions. — At first, these suggestions may seem very 
formal to you, but the conduct of a business meeting is a 


Class Parliamentary Usage 109 

formal matter. Fortunately, after the first two or three 
meetings you will become accustomed to the form of the 
meeting and it will seem the natural way to conduct the 
work of the class. At this time it will be well for you to 
decide whether every recitation shall be conducted as a 
business meeting or whether only one or two recitations a 
week shall be conducted in this manner. 

1. The class will be conducted as a business meeting 
by each pupil in alphabetic order. Begin with the A's, 
then the B's, etc. 

2. The minutes of the meeting will be written by each 
pupil in alphabetic order. Begin with the Z's, then the 
Y's, then the X's, etc. 

3. The pupil who conducts the meeting is called the 

4. The pupil who writes the minutes of the meeting is 
called the secretary. 

5. You will be called the chairman pro tern, or the 
secretary pro tern, because you act as chairman or secretary 
for one day only. The word pro tern, comes from the Latin 
pro tempore which means /or tlie time. 

6. The minutes of your class meeting must always 
contain the teacher's exact words in assigning the advance 

7. At the close of each recitation the minutes of the last 
meeting shall be placed in a loose leaf notebook on the 
teacher's desk where they may be consulted at any time. 

8. Whenever a pupil wishes to speak during the course 
of the meeting, he must stand, say '' Mr. Chairman," or 
" Miss Chairman," and wait until the chairman calls him 
by name. Then he may speak but not until then. 

no Community English 

Instructions for Chairman. — 

1 . Stand behind the teacher's desk. 

2. As soon as the class comes together say, " The 
meeting will please come to order." 

3. When the room is quiet say, '' The Secretary will 
read the minutes of the last meeting." 

4. As soon as the Secretary has finished say, *' Are 
there any corrections? " Should any one notice an error 
in the minutes he may state it at this time. If a mistake 
has been made you should ask the Secretary to make the 
correction and then say, '' If there is no objection the 
minutes will stand approved as corrected." 

5. If there are no corrections, say, " The minutes will 
stand approved as read." 

6. Then you may call upon the teacher to assign the 
next lesson. She will take whatever time she wishes for 
the regular work of the class. 

7. Upon current event day you will call upon your 
classmates to recite. 

8. When the class work is over for the day, a pupil says, 
'' Mr. Chairman, I move that we adjourn" ; another pupil 
says, "I second the motion"; then say, *' Those in favor 
will say * Aye.' " All vote " aye" ; then say, '' This meet- 
ing stands adjourned." 

9. If you are not able to be present in class when it is 
your turn to act as Chairman or as Secretary, you must 
arrange with some other pupil to take your place. Then 
when his turn comes, you must serve. 

10. Occasionally a question will arise for discussion and 
it will be necessary for you to '' put the question to vote." 
For example, a pupil stands and says, *' Mr. Chairman, 

Class Parliamentary Usage iii 

I move that " Another pupil stands and 

says, " Mr. Chairman, I second the motion." Then you 

should say, " It has been moved and seconded that 

(state the motion) All those 

in favor say " aye," those opposed say *' no." 

If more of your classmates say " aye " than ''no," you 
should say, " The motion is carried." If more say " no " 
than " aye," you should say, " The motion is lost." 

Instructions for Secretary. — 

1. Sit at the teacher's desk, near the Chairman. 

2. When called upon by the Chairman, stand and read 
the minutes of the last meeting. 

3. It is well to keep a very accurate and complete report 
of what is done during the recitation. This written report 
is called the Minutes of the Meeting. 

4. Do not keep a record of the exact words of any 

5. Never make in the Minutes any comment favorable 
or otherwise upon anything said or done during the meeting. 

6. After class make a neat, well-written copy of the 
Minutes and give this copy to the pupil who is to be the next 
Secretary pro tern. 

Appearance of the Minutes. — The completed minutes 

may look like this : 

Rand School 
Red Oak, Iowa 
April 16, 1921 
The regular meeting of the eighth grade English class was 
called to order in the English room, April 15, 1 921, by June 
Brown, Chairman pro tern. After the minutes of the last meet- 

112 Community English 

ing had been read and approved the assignment for the next 
lesson was made by our teacher, as follows: ''Write a short 
composition on one of the following topics : The benefits of 
good roads or How our playgrounds may be improved." 

The Chairman then called for current topics. George K. 
spoke briefly on "Crossing the Atlantic in an Airplane." Ernest 
G. told of "Speaking by Wireless around the World." 

The class adjourned. 

Hazel M. Boyden 

Secretary pro tern. 

Contents of Minutes. — You will note that in the minutes 
the following points were mentioned : 

1 . The kind of meeting (regular or special) 

2. The place 

3. The date 

4. The name of the chairman pro tern. 

5. The statement that the minutes of the last meeting 
were read and approved 

6. All other events of the meeting were mentioned in 

7. The name of the secretary pro tem. was signed. 

References. — Robertas Rules of Order Revised is perhaps 
the best book of reference for all questions of parliamentary 
usage. It is a small book pubhshed by Doubleday, Page 
and Company and should be upon the shelves of your class- 
room circulating library. 


In almost all classes in English the boys and girls have 
found that a notebook in which records, diagrams, maps, 
pictures, outlines, charts, etc. are placed is a very handy 
tool for ready reference. Doubtless you, too, will wish to 
keep such a record of your daily work. About once a 
month such books are brought to class, upon a regular day 
appointed by the teacher. There the books are exchanged 
and the initials of the pupil examining the book as well as 
the date are placed on the inside cover. Misspelled words 
are underscored and other mistakes are marked according 
to the suggestions given in Part XVIII on Correcting 
Proof. The books are then handed to the teacher. 

It is not at all necessary to copy in ink the material placed 
in the notebook or to spend a great deal of time in making 
it attractive, but it is well to remember that neatness and 
accuracy are of importance. Clean, shiny tools are the 
mark of good workmanship and a shabby notebook is not 
a usable tool. 


To keep a notebook in connection with your English 

Suggestions. — 

I . Buy a loose leaf notebook, opening at the side, about 
8Xii inches in size. 


114 Community English 

2. Paste on the cover of the book a shp of white paper 
2X4 inches in size. 

3. Upon this shp of white paper write the name of the 
school, the name of the teacher, the name of the subject, 
and your own name. The completed slip may then look 
like this : 


Name of Pupil 

Name of Teacher 

Name of Subject 

4. Leave the first three pages blank for your index. 
At the end of each month, as a review exercise, you will 
make your index up-to-date. It will be well to remember 
that your index will be unlike the index in any other note- 

5. In your notebook you may place the following 
material: memory passages, Hsts of words which are 
commonly mispronounced, new word lists, outhnes of 
stories studied in class, names of books read outside of class 
for which the teacher has given you credit, names of all 
stories and poems read by the teacher in class, or by the 
pupils to each other, pictures to illustrate the poems and 
stories read or studied, outline maps upon which places 
associated with authors of works read may be located, and 
charts as well as diagrams. 

6. Write in ink, if possible. 


Perhaps you are already more or less familiar with the 
bulletin board and its uses. Nevertheless, in order to make 
your work in EngHsh as efficient as possible you may be 
glad to pay special attention to these suggestions which 
may help you to a greater use of the bulletin board than you 
now have. 

To use the bulletin efficiently. 
Suggestions. — 

1. A bulletin board is a board upon which are posted 
clippings, illustrations, announcements of lessons, of 
lectures, of class trips, of investigations, etc. 

2. The board is often 4X5 feet in size and is frequently 
made of basswood, pine, or any other soft white wood. 
Sometimes it is a board covered with green burlap upon 
which the clippings and illustrations are pinned. 

3. If there is no bulletin board in your school which 
can be used for the English classroom, a group of boys 
may be chosen by your class to construct such a board. 

4. One half of the board belongs to the teacher for the 
notices she may wish to give, the other half belongs to you 
and your classmates. Upon your half you may post any 
material of which your teacher approves. 


li6 Community English 

5. Make a practice of consulting the bulletin board 
each day. First read very carefully the notices and 
announcements posted by your teacher ; then glance over 
the clippings and illustrations posted on your side of the 

6. Examine the class scrapbook, the class posters, and 
the class booklets which may be displayed. Is any of your 
work considered worthy of display? 

7. In each of your class tests or examinations there 
will be one or more optional questions based upon the 
material posted upon the bulletin board. 

8. If you are interested in the work of your class, you 
will bring material for display upon the bulletin board. 
An empty board always indicates an uninterested class. 

9. After the illustrations and clippings have been dis- 
played for several days, you may help take them down for 
classification. The material is filed, under proper headings, 
so it may be available for reference either in your own or 
in some other class. 

10. Classify, if you wish, the clippings according to the 
following headings : Good Paragraphs, Letters, American 
Authors, Community Interests, Outlines, Subjects for 
Debate, and the Class Paper. 

11. Newspaper clippings may be mounted on cheap 
mimeograph paper S^X n inches in size, and then filed in 
manila envelopes or folders gX iii inches in size. These 
envelopes may be alphabetically arranged in a vertical file 
or drawer according to the heading written upon the upper 
left-hand corner of each envelope. 

12. Clippings from magazines may be bound in covers 
like class booklets or they may be fastened in Gaylord 


The Bulletin Board 117 

pamphlet binders (Gaylord Brothers, Syracuse, New York), 
or they may be covered with manila paper like the biology 
folders used in high schools. 

13. These clippings may be lent for home use as library 
books are. 

14. Pictures, mounted or unmounted, may be secured 
at very little expense (costing usually but a cent or so) 
from any of the following companies: The E. A. Perry 
Picture Company, Maiden, Massachusetts; The Brown 
Picture Company, Beverly, Massachusetts; or the Cosmos 
Picture Company, 119 West 25th Street, New York City. 
The Copley Prints may be obtained from art dealers 
throughout the country or from Messrs. Curtis and Cam- 
eron, 12 Harcourt St., Boston, Massachusetts. 


Have you ever " played Indian " or taken part in a make- 
believe circus? If you have, you know how much more 
fun it is to live a story than it is to read it. '' Let's pretend " 
is your fairy dower, so it doubtless isn't very difficult for 
you to imagine yourself 

A pirate bold on the Spanish Main, 
Or a princess fair with a golden train. 

How would you like, therefore, to make up and to take 
part in little class plays? Some boys and girls have used 
the money obtained from such plays to buy pictures for the 
school auditorium or books for the school library. Perhaps 
you could find a similar use for money earned from your 
class play. Or perhaps you would enjoy giving a play 
simply for the fun of it, as did the boys and girls of the 
Junior High School of Winchester, Massachusetts, who 
presented a play in five scenes, entitled " Your Town and 

The principal character in their play was Tony Russo, an 
Italian gardener, whose lessons in American government 
took the form of visits to the local officials and the depart- 
ments of the town government. Somehow Tony Russo 
aided the boys and girls of Winchester to understand how 
their town helped the people who lived in it and they had 
such a good time staging their play that they wanted to 
give it several times. 


Oral and Written Dramatization 119 


To help write and to take part in a class play based 
upon local history. 

Suggestion. — Before beginning to write your play it 
will be well for you to read over the following stories and 
to work out the instructions which follow each story. 

The Loss and Recovery of a Horse 

A man was much vexed at having lost his horse ; and he did 
not know whether the animal had been stolen or whether it 
had strayed. Not being able to find it, he went into the market- 
place and offered a reward to any one who could find it and bring 
it back. Not long afterwards a man was seen leading a horse 
by a halter into the market-place. The owner was much pleased, 
and at once gave him the reward that had been promised. 
"But how," said the owner, "did you find the horse so easily?" 
"I asked myself," said the man, "to what place I would go, if 
I were a horse : so I went to a grassy field that had an open 
gate, and there he was, grazing to his heart's content." 

Now, imagine that you are the owner of the horse and 
that one of your classmates finds it for you. Without 
again reading the story, make inquiries for your horse 
using your own words. Offer a reward. When the horse is 
returned to you, thank the finder, pay the reward, and then 
make inquiries as to how the horse was so easily found. 
Your classmate will answer your questions in his own 

After several pupils have acted out the story select the 
group which appeared most natural and write down their 
conversation somewhat in this way : 

120 Community English 


Persons in the Play 

The owner of the horse 
The finder of the horse 

Scene: A market-place 

The owner of the horse {enters the market-place slowly, talking 
to himself). What a state I am in ! Before I lost my horse 
I was content, for I depended on him. But now that he is gone, 
goodness knows where, I certainly am worried. I wonder if 
some one stole him or if he only strayed away when I left him 
there by the gate. I believe I'll make inquiries of those men 
over there by the fruit stall. {Walks forward rapidly.) Good 
morning, men, have any of you seen a lost horse? 

Keeper of stall. What color was he? 

Owner. Black with white markings. 

Keeper. When did you first miss him? 

Oivner. About an hour ago. I stopped on my way to market 
to pay a bill at the doctor's and left my horse at his gate. When 
I returned a few minutes later he had disappeared. He is such 
a valuable horse that I will gladly pay a large reward to any one 
who returns him to me. 

Townspeople. We will help you search for him. 

{The search among the various stalls has scarcely begun when a 
man is seen leading a horse by a halter into the market-place. All 
rush toward him.) 

The owner. That's my horse all right and here's the money 
I promised as a reward. But, friend, I should be glad indeed 
to know how you found the horse so easily. 

The finder. It was not at all difficult. I asked myself to 
what place I would go if I were a horse : so I went to a grassy 

Oral and Written Dramatization 121 

field that had an open gate, and there he was grazing to his heart's 


Rewrite one of the following stories in the form of a play. 
Introduce conversation and little descriptive touches. 
Make your actors think out loud if by so doing they help 
the reader to understand the story. Before beginning to 
write ask yourself these questions : 

a. Who are the characters in the story? 

b. Does the story fall naturally into one, two, or more 
scenes ? 

c. Where are the scenes laid? 

d. Is it necessary to use quotation marks in writing the 
speeches in a play? 

After your play is written you may ask some of your 
classmates to help you produce it for the class. 

King Frederick and the Page 

Frederick, King of Prussia, once rung his bell and, nobody 
answering, opened the door where his servant was usually in 
waiting, and found him fast asleep on the sofa. He was about 
to wake him, when he perceived the end of a letter hanging out 
of his pocket. Curious to know its contents, he took it and 
read it. He found that the letter was from the young man's 
mother, thanking him for having sent her a part of his wages 
to assist her in her distress, and concluding with beseeching 
God to bless him for his filial attention to her wants. 

Returning to his room, the king took a roll of ducats and 
slipped them with the letter into the page's pocket. A little 
later he rang so violently that the page awoke, opened the door, 
and entered. "You have slept well," said the king. The page 

122 Community English 

made apology and, in his embarrassment, happened to put his 
hand into his pocket, and felt with astonishment the roll. He 
drew it forth, turned pale, burst into tears without being able 
to say a word. 

"What is the matter?" asked the king. " What ails you ? " 
"Ah, sire," said the young man, throwing himself at the king's 
feet, "some one has wished to ruin me. I know not how I came 
by this money in my pocket." 

"My friend," said Frederick, "God often sends us good in 
our sleep. Send this money to your mother, salute her in my 
name, and assure her that I shall take care of her and of you." 

The National Preceptor 

How can you let your audience know what the letter 
contains ? 

The House-Dog and the Wolf 

A lean, hungry wolf chanced one moonshiny night to fall in 
with a plump, well-fed house-dog. After the first compliments 
were passed between them, the wolf said, "How is it, my friend, 
that you look so sleek? How well your food agrees with you ! 
And here am I striving for a Hving day and night, and can barely 
save myself from starving." 

"Well," said the dog, "if you would fare like me you have 
only to do as I do." 

"Indeed," said he, "and what is that?" 

"Why, just guard the master's house and keep off thieves at 

"With all my heart," said the wolf; "for at present I have 
but a sorry time of it. This woodland life, with its frosts and 
rains, is sharp work for me. To have a warm roof over my head 
and plenty of victuals always at hand will, methinks, be no bad 

Oral and Written Dramatization 123 

''True," replied the dog; "therefore you have nothing to do 
but follow me." Now as they were jogging along together, the 
wolf spied a mark on the dog's neck, and having a curiosity, 
could not forbear asking what it meant. 

"Pooh ! nothing at all," said the dog. 

"Nay, but pray — " 

"Oh, a mere trifle; perhaps the collar to which my chain is 
fastened — " 

"Chain," interrupted the wolf in surprise; " you don't mean 
that you cannot rove when and where you please?" 

"Why, not exactly that, perhaps. You see I am looked upon 
as rather fierce ; so they sometimes tie me up in the daytime. 
But I assure you that I have perfect liberty at night ; and my 
master feeds me off his own plate, and the servants give me their 
titbits, and I am such a favorite, and — But what is the matter? 
Where are you going?" 

"Oh, good night to you," said the wolf. "You are welcome 
to your dainties ; but as for me, a dry crust with liberty, against 
a king's luxury with a chain." 


Instructions. — After dramatizing the little stories and 
fables told above, you are ready to begin work on your 
class play. 

1. Each pupil in the class will have some part in the 

2. The class will be divided into three or four groups, 
corresponding to the three or four important divisions of 
the play. Each group will choose the part of the story 
which it wishes to prepare, and will then write out the 
conversation and directions necessary for the development 
of its own part of the story. A captain should be chosen 
to direct the work of each group. 

124 Community English 

3. The best worked-out scene submitted by the various 
pupils in each group will be selected for the play. 

4. A committee chosen by the class will put the scenes 
together to form the completed play. 

5. When making final arrangements for the staging of 
your play you will be greatly helped by consulting your 
domestic science teacher about your costumes, your manual 
training teacher about the necessary stage properties, your 
drawing teacher about the decorations, and your geography 
teacher about the proper settings for the scenes. Your 
history books and history teacher may give you very 
valuable aid in preparing the play itself, while your music 
teacher will help you with the musical numbers. 

6. Choose an important event in the history of your 
city or town as the basis of your play. Find out all you 
can about the event. Go to the grandfathers and grand- 
mothers in your community for information and ideas. 
Find out about the event from old newspapers and from 
local histories. 

7. Study pictures to get ideas for scenery, clothes, and 

8. Make a list of characters necessary for the develop- 
ment of the play. 

9. Talk over the matter in class and decide how the 
play shall be divided into acts and scenes. Make a Hst of 
the important events in each scene. The best ideas will 
be chosen from each outline for the play. 

10. Working with the other pupils in your group, 
write out the conversation. Try to make it natural and 
true to life. Use simple words and keep your sentences 

Oral and Written Dramatization 125 

11. Be ready to offer suggestions to every other pupil in 
your group. 

12. Plan to present your play for the pupils of another 
grade. In order that they may understand what you say, 
speak slowly and distinctly, w^ith your face turned toward 
the audience, when possible. 

13. Read carefully the following historical account of the 
capture of Quebec and the play based upon it. The play 
may be far more elaborate than the play produced by your 
class, but such a play as this may help you in writing your 

The Capture of Quebec 

In the spring of 1759 nine thousand men were placed on ship- 
board to sail up the St. Lawrence to Quebec. Their leader was 
General James Wolfe, a man but little over thirty years of age. 
He had already proved himself a gallant soldier, however, and 
he gladly undertook the capture of the French stronghold. In 
the early summer, 1759, the English vessels came to anchor in 
the river below Quebec. Soon all was in readiness, and the 
English cannon began to boom forth a summons to the French 
to give up Quebec. But the citadel — the strong old fortress — 
showed no sign of giving up. 

It was resolved to move the camp to a place on the river above 
the city, and to try there to find some way up the steep cliff, 
thus gaining the plains behind the town. The bank of the river 
was searched for a pathway, and at last it was found. Careful 
preparations were made. On a dark night in September the 
men were silently rowed to the place selected, and still more 
silently led up the narrow, dangerous path. There were French 
guards at the top, but they were easily overpowered. And when 
the pale light of morning broke over the citadel, it fell on the 

126 Community English 

red-coated English soldiers, drawn up in battle line on the plains 
outside the town. 

There was great excitement in the fortress. Montcalm has- 
tened to make ready for battle. His soldiers were poorly 
equipped — indeed, it had been almost impossible for Montcalm 
to obtain any suppHes. But he had done all he could, and he 
entered upon the battle with a brave heart. 

It proved impossible, however, to drive the EngHsh back- 
Wolfe led the charge, and his men carried everything before 
them. The French broke into confusion. Montcalm did his 
best to stop their flight, and received a mortal wound. Wolfe, 
too, was struck, and again, and yet again ! Both of these 
valiant commanders were to die — the one victorious, — happy, 
as he said when dying, because he could know that the French 
were "flying everywhere"; the other sad, though he had done 
his duty nobly, and thanking God that he should not live to see 

the surrender of Quebec. 

Marguerite Stockman Dickson : 
American History for Grammar Schools 


Scene I 
Cabin of a British Ship on the St. Lawrence River 

Wolfe and his Aide-de-camp 
Two French Pilots 
A British Officer 
{Wolfe is drawing plans at a table. The Aide-de-camp enters 
and salutes. Wolfe looks up.) 

Aide-de-camp. The soldiers have captured two French pilots, 
and are treating them very roughly. The prisoners are badly 
frightened. What do you wish done? 

Oral and Written Dramatization 127 

Wolfe. No better luck could have befallen us. Bring them 
in. I will speak with them. 

(Aide salutes and goes out.) 

Officer (entering with two prisoners). We have taken these 
men but we do not wish to hang them without your orders. 

Wolfe (to the pilots). What have you to say for yourselves? 
Why are you prowling around here ? 

First Pilot. We meant no harm. If you will rescue us 
from these uncivil soldiers, and spare our lives, we are at your 

Second Pilot. Do not kill us, good general. We were only 
trying to catch fish in the river. 

Wolfe. I will spare your lives on one condition. If you will 
not accept our terms, I will not answer for the consequences. 

First Pilot. We will do whatever you command. 

Second Pilot. Yes, anything. 

Wolfe. Can you steer our ships up the river, near the city? 
That is the only service we shall ask of you. Accomphsh this, 
and you are free. 

First Pilot. Yes, I know every inch of the river. That is not 
at all difficult to do. 

Wolfe. Your people have blocked the river with logs. Some 
of them are under water, and the trip is perilous. 

Second Pilot. We know the location of every log, for we 
helped to place them in the river. 

Wolfe. Very well. You shall pilot us to-night. If one 
vessel runs aground, you will both be hanged. Do you 
understand ? 

First Pilot. We will do as you say, and we will stake our 
lives on our success. - 

Second Pilot. Indeed, we will ; and we thank you for your 
kindness to us. 

128 Community English 

Wolfe. If you steer us safely, you shall go free. You may 
rely on that. 

First Pilot {to Second Pilot). To-morrow we shall be free to 
return home to our anxious wives and children. 

Wolfe. Yes, just as soon as we need you no longer, we will 
give you permission to go back. 

Second Pilot. You may depend on us. 

(Soldier takes the prisoners out. General Wolfe follows.) 

Scene II 
Montcalm^ s Headquarters in the City of Quebec 


The French Governor of Quebec 
{Montcalm is writing at a table. The Governor enters?) 

Montcalm. Good evening, Governor. It has been a warm 
day for this part of the world. 

Governor. Yes, but there is a delightful breeze stirring on the 
river now. 

Montcalm. What new things have the English been doing 
to-day ? 

Governor. Only prowling around as usual. Their movements 
are always mysterious. 

Montcalm. Their provisions cannot last much longer. {He 
folds the letter he has written and seals it in the envelope.) No 
supplies are coming in ; they cannot live on air. 

Governor. It is only September. They will not begin to 
suffer until the cold weather. Now they are living on fish, fruit, 
and game ; but when the frost comes their ships will be fastened 
tightly in the ice. Then they will not fare so well. 

Montcalm. I believe they will go home soon. They musi 
be tired of waiting, with no success ahead of them. 

Oral and Written Dramatization 129 

Governor. It may be possible that they will attack the 
citadel before long. No doubt that is what they are planning 
to do. 

Montcalm. I scarcely believe so. They cannot land there. 
The cliffs are too steep ; and our guards are always on the look- 
out for scouts. This high bluff cannot be carried if there is a 
skillful defence on the crest. 

Governor. Perhaps they will enter at some other point. 
They doubtless know every inch of the river for a long distance 
on every side. 

Montcalm. There is no place unfortified within seven or 
eight miles on each side of the city. They would be seen march- 
ing back and would be intercepted if they should land so far 
away. Moreover, they are sure to go away soon. They have 
already remained here two and a half months, you know. 

Governor {raising his finger). Listen! 

Montcalm. What is the matter, man? Are you nervous? 
I hear nothing but the steps of the sentry. 

Governor. I hear shots and confused noises. Something is 

{As they listen, a French soldier enters, stands at attention, and 

Soldier {showing suppressed excitement). The British are at- 
tacking the citadel, sir. 

Montcalm {hurriedly putting on his sword). Where are 

Soldier. They seem to be coming from every direction. One 
detachment has passed the guards and climbed the steep banks 
beyond the city to the plains of Abraham. 

Montcalm. Then they have found the weak side of that 
wretched garrison, but we must fight and crush them. If I 
had been in the citadel I might have prevented this attack. 
Let us hasten. There is no time to waste. 

130 Community English 

Scene III 
The Citadel — a Room in the Fort 

Four British Officers 
Colonel Captain 

Major Lieutenant 

Colonel, How did you manage to pass the French guards 
last night ? 

Lieutenant. It was very dark. We spoke to them in the 
French language, and they thought we were Frenchmen. We 
learned the countersign from a French deserter. "Halt! Who 
goes there?" shouted a French sentinel. 

'^ France," I replied. 

Major. At the foot of the precipice, led by the Highlanders, 
we started to climb the bank. Then you followed us while the 
rest pretended to attack the intrenchments below the city. 

Captain. It is a glorious victory; but I cannot forget the 
price that we have paid for it. General Wolfe, our brave com- 
mander, is dead. 

Colonel. What did he say to you before he died? 

Captain. He was wounded in both the wrist and the side. 
Another shot struck him in the breast. 

"Support me. Let not my brave fellows see me fall," he 
cried. Then he sank to the ground. 

"See, they run !" I shouted. 

"Who run?" he asked. 

"The French," I answered. 

"Thank God ! I die happy,", were his last words. 

Colonel. Ah, he was a brave man. Where shall we ever 
find another commander to equal him ? 

Lieutenant. Montcalm, the French general, is mortally 
wounded, too. He, also, is a valiant soldier. 

Oral and Written Dramatization 131 

{A soldier enters, stands at attention, and salutes.) 

Soldier. Montcalm is dead. 

{They all stand silent for a moment.) 

Lieutenant. Now the French will lose their courage, and we 
will vanquish them. 

Colonel. Montcalm was a gallant general. No one can fill 
his place. 

Soldier. He said that he would rather die than see the capture 
of Quebec; but it consoled him to be conquered by so great 
and generous an enemy. 

Colonel. None but a noble soul could feel that. 

Captain. We have won, but we have paid dearly for our 
victory. War is the curse of the world. 

Colonel. Well said ! Let us go now to the battlefield and care 
for the wounded. 

(They all go out.) 

Bird and Starling : Historical Plays for Children 


I. To help dramatize and take part in the Bird's Christmas 
Carol. For the Christmas Carol any of the following may he 
substituted: Rip Van Winkle, The King of the Golden River, 
The Pied Piper of Hamelin, The Courtship of Miles Standish, 
Evangeline, Hiawatha, The Story of the Flag, The First 
Thanksgiving, the Webster-Hayne Debate, any important in- 
cidents in the life of Washington, Lincoln, or Daniel Boone. 

II. To help write and to take part in a little play based 
upon geography. This dramatization of geography may take 
the form of a pageant or outdoor procession instead of a play. 





gs '■ 















^f , 



;' 1 

• # 


1 ;%*>,,/ 

-1 _„. 

Oral and Written Dramatization 133 

Suggestions. — 

1. Uncle Sam's children bring him tribute from the 
fields and mines and rivers and forests. Each state is 
represented by a group of children. Miss Columbia helps 
Uncle Sam receive his gifts. Finally, all children pledge 
allegiance to him and to the flag. 

2. The school children of the world come to Mother 
Earth to ask for a longer vacation. 

3. A Japanese Tea Party. 

4. A day in a European schoolroom. 

5. Santa Claus' Party. (Attended by children in 
native costume.) 

6. Peeps at Many Lands. 

7. America's Children from Other Lands. 

8. The Animals' Breakfast Party. 

9. Thanksgiving Day in a Lumber Camp. 

10. Dame Nature's Corner Cupboard. (The children 
of all lands bring food for the family cupboard.) 


There are, as you know, storehouses of many kinds — 
grain, provision, merchandise, — but most of them have 
one defect ; they are not burglar proof. Do you know of 
any storehouse that is absolutely burglar proof? Have 
you ever planned to build a Memory Storehouse of Literary 
Treasures? What would be the value to you of such a 
Treasury ? How would it provide for your future as well as 
for your present enjoyment ? 

If you have had difficulty in " learning it by heart " you 
will be glad to know that you can memorize a poem easily, 
if you go about it in the right way. 


To memorize a short selection. 

Instructions. — In these instructions the word poem 
has been used in connection with the training of the memory, 
but the method for memorizing a prose selection is very 

1. Listen intently while your teacher reads the poem 
to you. 

2. Without hearing the poem a second time, try to tell 
what it is about. 

3. Open your book and read the whole poem through 
carefully from beginning to end. Discuss it with your 
teacher and classmates. 


Memory Training 135 

4. At a given signal, read the poem in concert, several 

5. Get the swing of the verse but try not to singsong it. 

6. Suit the action to the word ; that is, act it out, if 
that helps you to remember. 

7. Above all things do not try to learn one line at a time. 

8. Put your whole attention upon the poem to be mem- 
orized. Time yourself to see how long it takes you. 

9. Make the author's thought your own in this way: 
hear it, read it, study it, say it, write it. 

10. Be ready to discuss the manner in which your class- 
mates give the poem from memory. WTiile each is reciting 
ask yourself these questions : does he enunciate clearly, 
does he recite with proper expression? 

Memory contest. — About once a month you will enjoy 
taking part in a memory contest which is usually conducted 
in the following manner : 

When your teacher calls upon you for a quotation you 
rise and recite from memory until some one catches you in a 
mistake. The pupil making the correction then continues 
until he makes a mistake. In each case the first pupil 
noting the error and properly correcting it may recite. 
That pupil wins the test who recites the greatest number of 
lines without an error. 

Memory training. — Remembering the preceding instruc- 
tions, time yourself to see how long it takes you to memorize 
the following lines : 

And what is so rare as a day in June ? 

Then, if ever, come perfect days ; 
Then Heaven tries the earth if it be in tune. 
And over it softly her warm ear lays : 

136 Community English 

Whether we look, or whether we Hsten, 
We hear Hf e murmur, or see it ghsten ; 
Every clod feels a stir of might. 

An instinct within it that reaches and towers, 
And, groping blindly above it for light, 

Climbs to a soul in grass and flowers. 

James Russell Lowell : The Vision of Sir Lannfal 

What are some of the various things which together make 
up this beautiful June day in New England? What 
musical instrument has the poet in mind? We may shut 
our eyes on such a day but we cannot help knowing certain 
things. What are they? Give illustrations of the '' glis- 
ten." What is a clod ? In what way can it climb to a soul ? 
What and where are the figures of speech in these verses ? 

Class short poem recital. — Read over the following 
memory selections ; choose the one you like best ; learn it. 
In class compare the time which it took you to memorize 
the selection with the records of your classmates who 
learned the same selection. Read your selection from 
memory to the class during a short poem recital to which 
some other English class is invited. 

America For Me 

'Tis fine to see the Old World, and travel up and down 
Among the famous palaces and cities of renown. 
To admire the crumbly castles and the statues of the kings, — 
But now I think I've had enough of antiquated things. 

So it's home again, and home again, America for me ! 
My heart is turning home again, and there I long to be, 
In the land of youth and freedom beyond the ocean bars. 
Where the air is full of sunlight and the flag is full of stars. 


Memory Training 137 

Oh, London is a man's town, there's power in the air; 

And Paris is a woman's town, with flowers in her hair ; 

And it's sweet to dream in Venice, and it's great to study Rome ; 

But when it comes to Hving there is no place Hke home. 

I Hke the German fir-woods, in green battaUons drilled ; 
I like the gardens of Versailles with flashing fountains filled ; 
But, oh, to take your hand, my dear, and ramble for a day 
In the friendly western woodland where Nature has her way ! 

I know that Europe's wonderful, yet something seems to lack : 
The Past is too much with her, and the people looking back. 
But the glory of the Present is to make the Future free, — 
We love our land for what she is and what she is to be. 

Oh, it's home again, and home again, America for me ! 
I want a ship that's westward bound to plough the rolling sea. 
To the blessed Land of Room Enough beyond the ocean bars. 
Where the air is full of sunlight and the flag is full of stars. 

Henry van Dyke 

Breathes There the Man with Soul so Dead 

Breathes there the man with soul so dead, 
Who never to himself hath said, 
''This is my own, my native land"? 
Whose heart hath ne'er within him burn'd, 
As home his footsteps he hath turn'd 
From wandering on a foreign strand ? 
If such there breathe, go, mark him well ; 
For him no minstrel raptures swell ; 
High though his titles, proud his name. 
Boundless his wealth as wish can claim, — 
Despite those titles, power, and pelf. 
The wretch, concentered all in self, 

138 Community English 

Living, shall forfeit fair renown, 
And, doubly dying, shall go down 
To the vile dust from whence he sprung. 
Unwept, unhonor'd, and unsung. 

Sir Walter Scott : The Lay of the Last Minstrel 

The Flag Goes By 

Hats off ! 
Along the street there comes 
A blare of bugles, a ruffle of drums, 
A flash of color beneath the sky : 

Hats off 1 
The flag is passing by ! 

Blue and crimson and white it shines 
Over the steel-tipped, ordered lines. 

Hats off ! 
The colors before us fly ; 
But more than the flag is passing by. 

Sea fights and land fights, grim and great, 
Fought to make and save the State ; 
Weary marches and sinking ships ; 
Cheers of victory on dying lips ; 

Days of plenty and years of peace ; 
March of a strong land's swift increase ; 
Equal justice, right, and law, 
Stately honor and revered awe ; 

Sign of a nation, great and strong 
To ward her people from foreign wrong ; 
Pride and glory and honor, — all 
Live in the colors to stand or fall. 

Memory Training 139 

Hats off ! 
Along the street there comes 
A blare of bugles, a ruffle of drums ; 
And loyal hearts are beating high : 

Hats off ! 
The flag is passing by. 

Henry Holcomb Bennett 

I Am the Captain of My Soul 

Out of the night that covers me, 

Black as the Pit from pole to pole, 
I thank whatever gods may be 

For my unconquerable soul. 

In the fell clutch of circumstance 

I have not winced nor cried aloud. 
Under the bludgeonings of chance 

My head is bloody, but unbowed. 

Beyond this place of wrath and tears 

Looms but the Horror of the shade, 
And yet the menace of the years 

Finds, and shall find, me unafraid. 

It matters not how strait the gate, 
How charged with punishments the scroll, 

I am the master of my fate : 
I am the captain of my soul. 

William Ernest Henley 

America the Beautiful 

O beautiful for spacious skies. 

For amber waves of grain. 
For purple mountain majesties 

Above the fruited plain ! 

140 Community English 

America ! America ! 
God shed His grace on thee 
And crown thy good with brotherhood 
From sea to shining sea ! 

O beautiful for pilgrim feet, 

Whose stern, impassioned stress 
A thoroughfare for freedom beat 

Across the wilderness ! 
America ! America ! 

God mend thy every flaw. 
Confirm thy soul in self-control, 

Thy hberty in law ! 

O beautiful for heroes proved 

In liberating strife, 
Who more than self their country loved, 

And mercy more than life ! 
America ! America ! 

May God thy gold refine 
Till all success be nobleness 

And every gain divine ! 

O beautiful for patriot dream 

That sees beyond the years 
Thine alabaster cities gleam 

Undimmed by human tears ! 
America ! America ! 

God shed His grace on thee 
And crown thy good with brotherhood 

From sea to 'shining sea ! 

Katharine Lee Bates 

Memory Training 141 

The National Flag 

There is the national flag I He must be cold, indeed, who can 
look upon its folds rippling in the breeze without pride of coun- 
try. If he be in a foreign land, the flag is companionship and 
country itself, with all its endearments. It has been called a 
''floating piece of poetry," and yet I know not if it have greater 
beauty than other ensigns. Its highest beauty is in what it 
symbolizes. It is because it represents all, that all gaze at it 
with delight and reverence. It is a piece of bunting lifted in 
the air, but it speaks sublimely, and every part has a voice. Its 
stripes of alternate red and white proclaim the original union of 
thirteen States to maintain the Declaration of Independence. 
Its stars of white on a field of blue proclaim that union of States 
constituting our national constellation, which receives a new 
star with every new State. The two together signify union, 
past and present. The very colors have a language which was 
officially recognized by our fathers. White is for purity, red 
for valor, blue for justice ; and all together, bunting, stars, 
stripes, and colors, blazing in the sky, make the flag of our 
country — to be cherished by all our hearts, to be upheld by 

all our hands. 

Charles Sumner 


If you can keep your head when all about you 

Are losing theirs and blaming it on you. 
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, 

But make allowance for their doubting too ; 
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting. 

Or being lied about, don't deal in lies. 
Or being hated don't give way to hating, 

And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise : 

142 Community English 

If you can dream — and not make dreams your master ; 

If you can think — and not make thoughts your aim, 
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster 

And treat those two imposters just the same ; 
If you can bear to hear the truth you've spoken 

Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools, 
Or watch the thing you gave your life to, broken, 

And stoop and build 'em up with worn-out tools : 

If you can make one heap of all your winnings 

And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss, 
And lose, and start again at your beginnings 

And never breathe a word about your loss ; 
If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew 

To serve your turn long after they are gone, 
And so hold on when there is nothing in you 

Except the Will which says to them : ''Hold on !" 

If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue, 

Or walk with Kings — nor lose the common touch, 
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you, 

If all men count with you, but none too much ; 
If you can fill the unforgiving minute 

With sixty seconds' worth of distance run. 
Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it, 

And — which is more — you'll be a Man, my son ! 

RuDYARD Kipling 

Some boys and girls have taken pride in memorizing a 
short quotation each day. They generally choose the 
verse for that day written by their teacher upon the black- 
board. If you wish you may use the following quotations 
as a foundation for your memory storehouse. Try to add 
at least one new quotation each week. 

Memory Training 143 


Speak clearly, if you speak at all, 
Carve every word before you let it fall. 

O. W. Holmes 
Be strong ! 

We are not here to play, to dream, to drift. 
We have hard work to do, and loads to lift. 
Shun not the struggle ; face it. 'Tis God's gift. 

Maltbu". IUbcock 

Do noble things, not dream them all day long ; 

And so make life, death, and that vast forever 

One grand, sweet song. 

Charles Kingsley 

The heights by great men reached and kept 

Were not attained by sudden flight. 

But they, while their companions slept, 

Were toiling upward in the night. 

H. W. Longfellow 

Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body. 

Oliver Goldsmith 


They do me wrong who say I come no more, 
When once I knock and fail to find you in ; 
For every day I stand outside your door, 
And bid you wake, and rise to fight and win. 


We should accustom the mind to the best company by in- 
troducing it only to the best books. 

Sydney Smith 

144 Community English 


True worth is in being, not seeming, 
In doing each day that goes by 
Some Httle good — not in dreaming 
Of great things to do by and by ; 
For whatever men say in bUndness, 
And spite of the fancies of youth, 
There's nothing so kingly as kindness, 
There's nothing so royal as truth. 

Alice Gary 

Work for some good, be it ever so slowly ! 
Cherish some flower, be it ever so lowly ! 
Labor ! All labor is noble and holy ; 
Let thy great deed be thy prayer to thy God. 

Fannie S. Osgood 

The year's at the spring, 

And day's at the morn ; 

Morning's at seven ; 

The hillside's dew pearled ; 

The lark's on the wing ; 

The snail's on the thorn ; 

God's in his heaven — 

All's right with the world ! 

Robert Browning 

Honor and shame from no condition rise ; 
Act well your part, there all the honor lies. 

Alexander Pope 

Our greatest glory consists not in never falling, but in rising 

every time we fall. 

Oliver Goldsmith 

Memory Training 145 

Howe'er it be, it seems to me, 
'Tis only noble to be good ; 
Kind hearts are more than coronets. 
And simple faith than Norman blood. 

Alfred, Lord Tennyson 

There is a tide in the affairs of men, 

Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune. 

William Shakespeare 

Let us have faith that right makes might, and in that faith 

let us do our duty as we understand it. 

Abraham Lin'COLN 

Did you tackle the trouble that came your way 

With a resolute heart and cheerful? 

Or hide your face from the light of day 

With a craven soul and fearful? 

Oh, a trouble's a ton, or a trouble's an ounce, 

Or a trouble is what you make it ; 

And it isn't the fact that you're hurt that counts, 

But only. How did you take it? 

Edmund Vance Cooke 

They are slaves who dare not be 

In the right with two or three. 

James Russell Lowell 

It is well to think well ; it is divine to act well. 

Horace Mann 

This world is not so bad a world 
As some would like to make it ; 
Though whether good or whether bad 
Depends on how we take it. 


146 Community English 

Laugh and the world laughs with you, 

Weep and you weep alone ; 

For this sad old Earth must borrow its mirth — 

It has troubles enough of its own. 

Ella Wheeler Wilcox 

Serene, I fold my hands and wait, 

Whate'er the storms of life may be, 

Faith guides me up to heaven's gate. 

And love will bring my own to me. 

John Burroughs 

Somebody said that it couldn't be done. 

But he with a chuckle replied 
That maybe ''it couldn't," but he would be one 

Who wouldn't say so till he'd tried. 
So he buckled right in with a trace of a grin 

On his face. If he worried, he hid it. 
He started to sing as he tackled the thing 

That couldn't be done, and he did it. 

Edgar A. Guest 

Let me live in my house by the side of the road. 

Where the race of men go by. 
They are good, they are bad, they are weak, they are strong, 

Wise, foolish : so am I. 
Then why should I sit in the scorner's seat, 

Or hurl the cynic's ban ? 

Let me live in my house by the side of the road. 

And be a friend of man. 

Sam Walter Foss 

Home's not merely four square walls, 
Though with pictures hung and gilded ; 

Home is where affection calls — 

Where its shrine the heart has builded 

Memory Training 147 

Whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are just, 
whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, what- 
soever things are of good report ; if there be any virtue, and 

if there be any praise, think on these things. 


If you would live with ease, 

Do what you ought, not what you please. 

Benjamin Franklin 

Be noble ! and the nobleness that lies 
In other men, sleeping but never dead, 
Will rise in majesty to meet thine own. 

James Russell Lowell 

Be just and fear not ; 

Let all the ends thou aimest at be thy country's, 

Thy God's, and truth's. 

William Shakespeare 


More prominent in boys than in girls, but present to 
some degree in every one, is the instinct to fight — the desire 
not to be overcome, but to win. Usually, we think of 
contests and games as belonging to the playground, but 
where victories of the intellect may be substituted for 
victories of physical skill, contests may take place in the 
classroom as well as in the gymnasium or on the play- 

Within the last few years there has grown up a series 
of games suitable for use in the English classroom. Gram- 
mar Baseball, Paragraph Archery, Authors, Spelling 
Contests, and Debates are but a few of these games for 
which boys and girls have either followed the simple direc- 
tions suggested here, or for which they have made their own 

It is well to remember in connection with these games, 
however, that sportsmanship is as important a requisite 
in games in the classroom as in games on the playground. 
Team work, self-restraint, and fair play are absolutely 
necessary if you are to play these games successfully. 
" You must not lose courage when the other side gets 
ahead. You are to play just as hard when the score is 
ten to nothing as when it is five to five. No one can tell 
what may happen in the last inning. If the final score is 
ten to nothing, you must not go off with your head down, 
or say that the opposing team didn't win fairly. Say in- 
stead that next time the result will be different." 


Games and Contests 149 

To play grammar baseball. 

What to do. — 

1 . Divide the class into two equal parts, called teams. 

2. Each team chooses a captain. 

3. The two captains choose a scorekeeper. 

4. Upon the blackboard the scorekeeper draws two 
figures of four bases each, one for each team. 

5. The teacher acts as umpire. The umpire is authority 
on all disputed questions. 

6. The questions are announced by the teacher or by 
one of the captains. 

7. Any fair question which deals with reading, writing, 
spelling, grammar, or literature may be asked. 

8. No pupil shall be called by name until after the 
question has been announced. If a pupil answers without 
being called upon, he has made an error and his team is 
penalized for one base. 

9. That team which has the most runs to its credit 
wins the game. 

How to do it. — 

I. The questioner calls first upon one side then upon 
the other, but the pupils are not called upon in any regular 

150 Community English 

2. If the first question has been correctly answered by 
the A's, the scorekeeper draws a Hne to first base on A's 
diamond, thus: 


• • 

Home Home 

A's B's 

3. The B's are given a chance. If the question is 
answered correctly, the scorekeeper gives them credit for 
first base also. 

• • 

• • 
A's B's 

4. If the B's fail to answer correctly, and the A's are 
able to reply correctly, the score is marked in this way : 

• • 

A's B's 

5. This method of scoring is continued until the end of 
the recitation period, when the final result is announced. 

6. When a player reaches the home base, the score- 
keeper prepares another figure of four bases, in order that 
an exact record may be kept. Therefore, at the end of 
the contest the score may look something like this when the 
final result is in favor of the A's, two to one. 

• • • 

Games and Contests 151 

.A. .A. 

• • • • 

A's B's 

7. The answers to many of the questions should be 
written upon the blackboard. Sometimes several pupils 
are sent to the board, the question is announced, and the 
pupil who first answers it correctly wins the credit. 

8. Frequently, in the opinion of the teacher the question 
will be worth two bases instead of one. After she an- 
nounces this decision, the pupils are sent to the board, the 
question is announced, and the first to answer correctly 
wins the credit. 

9. When preparing for a grammar baseball game, the 
pupils may write out questions. to be given to their own 
captain. He may ask the questions of the rival team. 

10. Any question is fair which is based upon work already 
covered in class. The following suggestive questions are 
not meant to be exhaustive. Your own list may be much 
more helpful. 

Suggestive questions. — 

1 . What are four different kinds of sentences ? 

2. What are the eight parts of speech? 

3. What is the dijfference between a common and a 
proper noun? 

4. What is a pronoun? 

5. Give a sentence containing a transitive verb. 

6. What is an intransitive verb ? 

7. What are the principal parts of a letter? 

8. Write the address for an envelope on the blackboard. 

152 Community English 

9. Write a synopsis of the verb hear in all tenses, first 
person singular active indicative. 

10. Name two adverbs and two prepositions. 

1 1 . What is a dependent clause ? 

1 2 . How many genders are there ? 

13. Give the past tense of sit^ read, write. 

14. Compare the adverb well. 

15. Write a sentence containing an infinitive. 

16. Decline the pronoun he. 

17. What is the meaning of each of the following abbre- 
viations : 

C.O.D. chap. M.D. Ave. 

Anon. qt. bu. R.R. 

D.D. St. bbl. P.S. 

LL.D. lb. doz. Supt. 

f.o.b. oz. sq. Treas. 

mdse. ft. S. Hon. 

O.K. in. N. Inc. 

Y.M.C.A. gal. E. Dr. 

U.S.A. ans. W. Prof. 

R.S.V.P. A.D. A.B. etc. 

fig. D.C. D.S. P.O. 

lat. A.A.A. Ed. Sec. 

long. Ltd. ff. Rev. 

B.C. G.A.R. M.C. Jr. 

reed. I.W.W. h.p. Sr. 

acct. V.C. pro tem. Co. 

Messrs. inst. U.S.N. Cr. 

amt. prox. ' ult. Mr. 

bal. pk. pp. Mrs. 

Games and Contests 153 

18. Write on the board an imperative sentence, an 
interrogative sentence, and a declarative sentence. 

19. Make each of the following sentences ask a question : 

a. Mary went home. 

b. The bear growled and bit angrily at the hornets' 


c. It was almost all rock, this little island. 

d. At a great pace the bear went toward the sound. 

e. Every few seconds the seal would slip into the 


20. What is the subject and predicate in each of the 
following sentences : 

a. Listen to the nightingale. 
h. Read me the story. 

c. Please close the door. 

d. Hitch your wagon to a star. 

21. Change these questions to declarative sentences: 

a. Did his mother call him? 

b. Did he have big, faded blue eyes? 

c. Have you a knife? 

d. Has he gone home? 

e. Could you read the letter? 
/. May I go home? 

22. Pick out all the nouns in the following paragraph. 
Which are names of things, which are names of persons? 

23. Pick out all the adverbs in the following paragraph. 

24. Pick out all the adjectives in the following paragraph. 

His mother named him Harold, and named him better than 
she knew. He was just such a boy as one would expect to see 
bearing a heroic name. He had big, faded blue eyes, a nubbin 

154 Community English 

of a chin, wide, wondering ears, and freckles — such brown 
blotches of freckles on his face and neck and hands, such a 
milky way of them across the bridge of his snub nose, that the 
boys called him ''Mealy." 

William Allen White : The Court of Boyville 

25. Select from the above paragraph, a definite article, an 
indefinite article. 

26. How many verbs are there in the selection above? 

27. Are they active or passive verbs? How many are 
transitive? How many are intransitive? 

28. Is an intransitive verb ever passive in form? 

29. What is a copulative verb? 

30. How is the word stone used in the following sentence? 
The boy threw a stone. 

31. Pick out the direct object in each of these sentences : 

a. The bear chased the hunter. 

b. He wore a long, black coat. 

c. Harry ate three oranges. 

d. The dog has a new blanket. 

32. What is the meaning of antonym; of synonym? 
Give two illustrations of each. 

33. What is the plural of each of the following words : 

tree pencil 

boy sailor 

house hand 

cat monkey 

day play 

plain key 

branch - brush 

glass box 

Games and Contests 155 

cry fly 

army lady 

duty city 

half calf 

wolf wife 

thief hfe 

leaf knife 

gulf scarf 

dwarf proof 

wharf roof 

mouse tooth 

woman foot 

man goose 

potato buffalo 

hero cargo 

negro echo 

dozen sheep 

fish deer 

34. Compare the fpllowing adjectives : small, loud, deep, 
great, light, thick. 

35. Compare: thin, glad, wet, big, hot. 

36. Compare: white, brave, true, wise, large, fine. 

37. Compare: gay, dry, happy. 

38. Compare : good, bad, little, much or many, old, late. 

39. Compare the following adverbs: fast, hard, near, 
long, early, well. 

40. Change the following sentences from active to passive 
voice : 

156 Community English 

a. Our fathers brought forth upon this continent a 
new nation. 

h. Love conquers all things. 

c. Manners make the man. 

d. You cannot teach old dogs new tricks. 

e. Anger manages everything badly. 

/. April showers bring forth May flowers. 

41. Select the correct word for each of these sentences 
and give the reason for your choice : 

a. My sister looks like (me, I). 
h. Do it (as, like) I do it. 

c. Do it (as, like) me. 

d. Give it to Jack and (I, me). 

e. He is taller than (I, me) . 

/. She is shorter than (he, him). 

42. Select the correct word for each of the following 
sentences and in each case give the reason for your choice : 

a. Neither of the girls (has, have) it. 
h. Who is going, you or (I, me) ? 

c. (Who, whom) did this come from? 

d. (May, can) I have a drink? 

e. I am (most, almost) ready. 

/. The child ran (in, into) the pantry. 

g. Divide it (among, between) you two. 

h. My dress is different (from, to, than) yours. 

i. Here are invitations for you and (her, she) . 

43. Use the word helow as an adverb and as a preposition. 
Use the word hut as a preposition, as a conjunction, and as 
an adverb. 

Games and Contests 157 

44. Put into plural number each of the following sen- 
tences : 

a. My book is lost. 

b. The box is here. 

c. The kitten is playing with a ball. 

d. The bird is building a nest. 

e. The child was tired. 
/. The pony was stolen. 
g. The dog has run away. 

h. The doll has been broken. 
i. I have finished the story. 
j. I do not like tomatoes. 
k. The boy does his work well. 

45 . Give the principal parts of the following verbs : 
come ' rise sing 

is go teach 

march take lie 

drink bring set 

46. What is the difference in meaning between : 

eldest and oldest 

farther and further 

later and latter 

nearest and next 

47. Write sentences containing : 

a. a noun clause used as subject of a sentence 

b. a noun clause used as direct object of a sentence 

c. an infinitive phrase used as subject of a sentence 

d. an infinitive phrase used as direct object of a verb 

48. State six common rules of punctuation. 

158 Community English 

49. In the following sentences change each infinitive 
phrase to a clause : 

a. I decided to go to Chicago to-morrow. 

h. He was delighted to find his purse. 

c. I must go now to hear him lecture. 

d. She was glad to see the play. 

50. Continue your review by making out your own list 
of questions. The foregoing examples may suggest other 
questions to you. 


To conduct a spelling contest. 

First method. — If you wish, you may challenge the 
pupils of another class to compete with you in this contest. 

1. Ask your teacher to divide your class into two equal 

2. Choose a captain for each side. 

3. While the captains are distributing paper to each 
pupil, be sure that your pen is in good condition and that 
you have plenty of ink. 

4. Upon the sheet of paper given to you, be prepared 
to write the sentences read aloud by the teacher. Try to 
spell correctly each word pronounced. 

5. As soon as all the sentences have been pronounced, 
ask your captains to collect the papers and deliver them to 
your teacher. 

6. Make it a rule of this contest that all papers shall be 
looked over by the two captains and the teacher. 

7. That side wins which has the smaller total number of 
misspelled words. 

Games and Contests 159 

Second method. — 

1. Ask your teacher to appoint two captains. 

2. Let each captain choose sides until every pupil in 
class is chosen. 

3. Then stand and try to spell correctly every word 
pronounced to you by the teacher. If you spell the word 
incorrectly, take your seat. 

4. If you spell a word out of turn you must also take your 

5. That side wins which has the greater number of pupils 
standing when the contest is over. 

Third method. — The following method has been adopted 
by the boys and girls of a school in Pennsylvania and has 
been called the Baseball System : 

The schoolroom is the diamond, the corners being used for 
the bases. The teacher is the ^'pitcher, " the pupils are the 
''players." A pupil "at bat" advances to the corner of the 
room designated as the "plate" and the teacher pronounces 
three words. If all are correctly spelled the "player" moves to 
first base, having made a "hit." Each succeeding "player" 
who makes a "hit" advances him a base until he is "scored." 
As each succeeding "player" makes a "safe" hit he goes to 
first base, and the "runs scored" count for the side the players 
represent. When the player fails to spell a word correctly he is 
declared "out" and goes to his seat, which is the "player's 

Practice list. — Here is a list of two-hundred-fifty trouble- 
some words. For practice you may aim to spell each of 
these words correctly : 


Community English 

all right 


























































































Games and Contests 






















































































Community English 


































































To take part in a paragraph archery contest. 
Instructions. — 

1. Ask your teacher to act as referee of the game. 

2. Choose two of your classmates to act as captains of 

Games and Contests 163 

the teams. Each captain will choose sides until all pupils 
are chosen. 

3. Select a scorekeeper who shall keep a record of the 
game upon the blackboard. As soon as he is selected, 
let him draw a paragraph target within which is written 
the topic sentence announced by the teacher. 

4. As soon as you are called upon by the referee, be 
prepared to give a sentence which will hit the mark and help 
build up the paragraph. If your sentence adds to the 
thought of the topic sentence, the scorekeeper will mark it , 

If your sentence fails to hit the mark the score is 
marked in this way : v ^ 

5. The captains of the opposing teams are called upon 
first. After that other pupils are called upon but not in 
regular order. Any one answering out of turn is penalized 
and one credit is deducted from the score of his team. 


Community English 

6. As many different targets may be- used as there are 
different topic sentences announced by the referee. 

7. The side having the smaller number of errors wins. 

8. The final score may look like this : 

As = 2 errors 
B'5 - 1 error 

How the game was played. — After reading over the 
instructions given above, you may think that the game of 
paragraph archery is too difficult to play often, but if you 
read the following account of how some Minnesota boys and 
girls played archery you may have a clearer understanding 
of just what to do. 

Tom was chosen captain of one team and George was 
made captain of the other. Sarah, the scorekeeper, wrote 
upon the blackboard the topic sentence announced by the 
referee. The target then looked like this: 

Games and Contests 


The referee called upon Tom for a sentence. He arose and 
said, " It was more like the figure of a fairy than of a man." 
The class decided that the sentence had hit the mark, so 
Sarah marked it thus : 


When George was called upon he repHed, " The windows 
shook and the doors rattled." '' Error," voted the class 
and Sarah indicated it in this way : 

Like flgnre of fai 

Then Tom's first assistant said, '' His body could bend it- 
self in every direction, it was so elastic." " Scored," 
declared the class and Sarah wrote : 


Community English 


When the game was finished, the blackboard score looked 
like this : 

The game had been won by George's team which had made 
but a single error. 

The completed paragraph, built up by the class read as 
follows : 

At that instant the door burst open and a most extraordinary 
figure entered. It was more like the figure of a fairy than that 
of a man. His body could bend itself in every direction, it was 
so elastic. He wore a red mantle and two huge silvery wings 
fluttered from his shoulders. But his strangest and most re- 
markable characteristic were his eyes which glistened like 
lighted candles as his feet glided over the floor. 

Games and Contests 167 

To take part in an essay contest. 

Instructions. — 

1. Discuss in class a plan for displaying ten of the most 
interesting compositions written during the month. 

2. Choose a committee of three to work with the teacher 
in selecting these ten compositions. 

3. Select another group of three to make an album or 
portfoHo in which the compositions selected shall be placed. 
Upon the cover of this album should be lettered the words : 
Best Compositions of the Month. 

4. Place the album, containing these compositions, upon 
a table in the classroom, in the study hall or in the school 

5. At the end of four weeks remove these compositions 
and carefully file them for future reference. Put the ten 
best compositions for the next month in their place. 

6. Arrange to have a prize given to the pupil who during 
the year has the greatest number of best compositions on 
exhibition. Such a prize may be donated by some friend 
of the school. Letters may be written by each member of 
the class, asking some one to offer a prize for this contest 
and the best letter will be sent. 


To take part in a prize speaking contest. 

Did you ever attend a Prize Speaking Contest? Why 
were you especially interested in the result? How many 

1 68 Community English 

prizes were awarded? Were the speakers allowed to have 
special training for the contest? Was this training given 
by the teachers or by some one outside the school? How 
were the speakers chosen? Why would you like or dislike 
to take part in such a contest? Give reasons to prove that 
a contest of this kind raises the standard of oral English 
in the school. Debate informally the question, Resolved : 
That this class shall conduct a prize speaking contest. 
Read the following suggestions before completing your 
plans for the contest. 

Suggestions. — 

1. With your teacher and classmates discuss plans for 
a class prize speaking contest. 

2. Select three prominent people in your community 
to act as judges. 

3. Choose a committee of two or three from your class 
to invite these distinguished people to act. 

4. Ask your teacher to preside as chairman of the con- 
test or choose one of your classmates to do so. 

5. If your teacher approves, you may invite your 
friends to this contest. 

6. If there is extra money in the class treasury, you 
may use it to buy two prizes of books, one for a boy and 
one for a girl. 

7. Prepare for the contest in this way : choose a favorite 
short selection of prose or poetry, read it aloud several times 
at home, then read it to your teacher. After your teacher 
approves of your selection you may memorize it ; for the 
least you can do toward winning the prize is to learn the 

Games and Contests 169 

8. Make it ca rule of this contest that there shall be no 

9. Be sure that every member of the class takes part 
in the contest. 

10. Remember on the day of the contest that it is impor- 
tant for you to be a good hstener as well as a good speaker. 

11. On the day of the contest, when your name is called, 
try to remember these suggestions : 

a. Be quiet and natural in manner. 

h. Speak clearly, and pronounce each word carefully. 

c. Do not think about gestures but try to make your 
audience understand the meaning of the selection 
you are reading. 

d. Keep in mind this quotation, " Straight from the 
mighty bow this truth is driven ; they fail and 
they alone, who have not striven." 

12. As soon as the contest is over and the chairman of 
judges has announced the decision, ask your Principal to 
award the prizes. 

To take part in a debate. 

Frequently a question arises which has two sides worth 
discussing. How would you like to take the side of the 
question you believe to be right and give reasons for your 
opinion? If a classmate argues for his opinion which differs 
from yours, you will be debating the question. Usually 
more than two people take part in a debate. It is always 
well to remember that although you are sure your opinion 

170 Community English 

is right still your opponents may have such good arguments 
that you will wish to change your opinion. 

If you have had no practice in debating it will be wise to 
arrange class debates until you become famihar with the 
manner in which a debate is conducted. Then interclass, 
and even school debates, may be conducted. To these 
latter debates you may invite your friends if your teacher 
has no objection. Write informal notes of invitation. 
Talk over the question chosen with older people and study 
the following suggestions : 

Suggestions. — 

1. Whenever you give reasons for or against any 
question, trying to make some one else believe what you 
believe, you use Argument. 

2. A debate is an argument carried on according to 
fixed rules by two chosen sides. 

3. The subject of a debate is given as a statement; for 

Resolved: That dogs have intelKgence. 
Resolved: That baseball is a better game than foot- 

4. When you are in favor of the question, you are on the 
Affirmative side of the question. If you oppose the question 
you are on the Negative side. 

5. Each side chooses a captain or leader. 

6. The leader of the affirmative side speaks first, the 
leader of the negative side speaks second. The second 
speaker for the affirmative side speaks third, and is followed 
by the second speaker for the negative side. The debaters 
speak alternately until all have spoken. Usually the 

Games and Contests 171 

negative side sums up first and the affirmative leader speaks 

7. When you destroy or overthrow your opponents' 
arguments, you rejute them. 

8. Judges may be chosen to decide the debate or a 
class vote may decide the question. 

9. Having arranged a debate between two teams from 
your own class or having challenged some other class to 
debate with you, choose your subject and find out all you 
can about both sides of the question. 

10. Make a list of clear statements about the facts and 
give this list to the captain of your team. He, as well as 
each member of his team, should have a written outline 
of the most important points to be debated. This outhne 
may be written upon slips of paper or pieces of cardboard 
about three inches by five inches in size. The notes should 
be written upon one side only of the paper and the para- 
graph divisions should be indicated clearly. 

11. As you debate, remember to pick out your most 
important arguments and stick to those arguments. 

12. Because is not a sufficient reason. Every statement 
must be based on fact. Be careful to have your proof ready 
in case it is called for. 

13. Before your time is up, sum up your most important 

14. Play fair. Do not lose your temper. Be courteous. 
Remember that you are not attacking your opponent, you 
are attacking his arguments. 

Subjects suggested for debate. — The suggested subjects 
listed below may help you to think of others far more satis- 

172 Community English 

factory than any mentioned here. For still greater variety 
in subjects, consult the index of this book, your teacher, and 
the school librarian. Much valuable printed matter 
containing lists of subjects for debate may be obtained 
free, or at little cost, from the Superintendent of Documents, 
United States Bureau of Education, Washington, D.C. 

1. Resolved: That military training should be com- 
pulsory in this school. 

2. Resolved: That Lincoln was a greater man than 

3. Resolved : That motion pictures have a bad influence 
upon boys and girls. 

4. Resolved : That English is the most important subject 
in the grammar school. 

5 . Resolved : That this class should issue a class maga- 
zine at least twice a year. 

6. Resolved : That clocks should be set ahead an hour 
the last Sunday in March. 

7. Resolved: That every boy should become a Boy 

8. Resolved: That textbooks should be free to the 
pupils in this school. 

9. Resolved : That every girl should be required to study 
cooking and sewing. 

10. Resolved : That basket ball provides better exercise 
than tennis. 

1 1 . Resolved : That Theodore Roosevelt was our greatest 

12. Resolved: That Roderick Dhu was a more worthy 
suitor for the hand of Ellen than was Malcolm Graeme. 

Games and Contests 173 

13. Resolved : That the piano offers more advantage as a 
source of pleasure in the home than does the phonograph. 

14. Resolved : That the telegraph is more useful to man 
than is the telephone. 

1 5 . Resolved : That life in the Virginia colony was more 
enjoyable than life in the Plymouth colony. 

16. Resolved: That baseball is a better game than 

17. Resolved: That manual training should be taught in 
this school. 

18. Resolved: That the raising of Jersey cows is more 
profitable than the raising of Holsteins. 

19. Resolved: That capital punishment should be 

20. Resolved : That the Pied Piper did right in leading 
away the children. 

21. Resolved: That the treatment of the Acadians in 
the story of Evangeline was unjust. 

22. Resolved : That the pubHc Kbrary should be open on 

23. Resolved : That grammar school pupils should receive 
training in debating. 

24. Resolved : That interclass football promotes the best 
interests of this school. 

25. Resolved : That Rebecca is the heroine of Ivanhoe. 

To take part in a contest about American authors. 

Instructions. — Quite unlike the game of Authors that 
you may have played at home, when a child, is this game 

174 Community English 

of American Authors. Boys and girls in other English 
classes have worked out these rules and instructions, but 
perhaps you can think of still other rules to make the 
game even more interesting. 

1. Play this game at least once a month, if possible. 

2. Let each pupil in the class stand. 

3. As the teacher reads from this list, either the name 
of the book or the author of the book, the pupil responds 
with the name of the author or the name of one of his 
works. For instance, if your teacher reads from the list 
the name of Henry W. Longfellow, you should give the 
name of any of his writings, Evangeline, Hiawatha, The 
Courtship of Miles Standish, etc. If, however, the teacher 
announces the name Hiawatha, you should reply, Henry 
W. Longfellow.' 

4. If the pupil called upon fails to respond with the 
correct name, he must take his seat. 

5 . The pupil who remains standing longest wins the game. 

6. Frequently the teacher writes the name of an author 
at the top of a small card. Under the author's name she 
places a list of his writings. These cards are convenient 
to handle rapidly. Sometimes this contest is made a 
written exercise. Then, the pupil having the greatest 
number of correct answers wins. 

Reference list of authors and books. ^ — No attempt has 
been made to make this a complete Hst of worthy American 

1 For further reference see : 

Cairns — American Literature for Secondary Schools. 

Page — Chief American Poets. 

Painter — Introduction to American Literature. 

Tisdel — A Brief Survey of English and American Literature. 

Wendell — Literary History of America. 

Games and Contests 


authors. Only the most important authors and titles 
have been named. You will think of many other writers 
and many other titles which should be added to the hst 
used in your contests. 

1. Ben'jamin Franklin 

Poor Richard's Almanac 

2. Washington Irving 
Sketch Book 

3. James Fenimore Cooper 
The Deerslayer 

The Spy 

The Last of the Mohicans 

The Pilot 

4. Nathaniel Hawthorne 
Twice Told Tales 

The Wonder Book 
Tanglewood Tales 
The House of Seven Gables 
The Scarlet Letter 

5. Harriet Beecher Stowe 
Uncle Tom's Cabin 

6. Francis Scott Key 

The Star Spangled Banner 

7. Samuel Woodworth 
The Old Oaken Bucket 

8. John Howard Payne 
Home Sweet Home 

9. William Cullen Bryant 

Many other poems 

10. Ralph Waldo Emerson 

1 1 . Abraham Lincoln 
The Gettysburg Address 

12. Henry W. Longfexlow 


Courtship of Miles Standish 

The Children's Hour 

The Wreck of the Hesperus 

The Village Blacksmith 

A Psalm of Life 

The Building of the Ship 

13. James Russell Lowell 
The Vision of Sir Launfal 
The Courtin' 

14. John Greenleaf Whittier 
Snow Bound 

The Barefoot Boy 

15. Oliver Wendell Holmes 
The One Hoss Shay 
Elsie Venner 

16. Edgar Allan Poe 
Annabel Lee 

The BeUs 
The Raven 
The Gold Bug 

17. Henry David Thoreau 

18. Francis Parkman 
Oregon Trail 

19. Walt Whitman 

O Captain ! my Captain ! 

20. Helen Hunt Jackson 

21. Mark Twain 
Tom Sawyer 
Huckleberry Finn 

The Prince and the Pauper 


Community English 

22. Henry Sydnor Harrison 

23. Bret Harte 

The Luck of Roaring Camp 
The Outcasts of Poker Flat 

24. Edward Everett Hale 
The Man Without a Country 

25. Lewis Wallace 

Ben Hur: A Tale of the 

26. John Burroughs 
Sharp Eyes 

27. Louisa M. Alcott 
Little Men 
Little Women 

28. James Whitcomb Riley 
Child Rhymes 

29. Hamlin Garland 

A Son of the Middle Border 

30. Jack London 

The Call of the Wild 

31. Winston Churchill 
The Crisis 
Richard Carvel 

32. Eugene Field 

SS. Theodore Roosevelt 
The Winning of the West 
Game Trails of Africa 
Letters to His Children 

34. Julia Ward Howe 

The Battle Hymn of the Re- 

35. Henry van Dyke 
The Blue Flower 

36. O. Henry (William Sidney 


Rolling Stones 

37. William Allen White 
The King of Boyville 

The Martial Adventures of 
Henry and Me 

38. F. HoPKiNSON Smith 
Colonel Carter of Cartersville 

39. Frank R. Stockton 

The Grifi&n and the Minor Canon 
Rudder Grange 

40. Sarah McLean Greene 
Cape Cod Folks 

Vesty of the Basin 

41. Booth Tarkington 

The Gentleman from Indiana 



42. Mary E. Waller 

The Wood Carver of 'Lympus 
1.3. John Fox, Jr. 

The Little Shepherd of Kingdom 

44. Mary Johnston 

45. Edward Eggleston 
The Hoosier Schoolboy 
The Hoosier Schoolmaster 

46. Kate Douglas Wiggin 
Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm 

47. Hamilton Wright Mabie 
Heroes Every Child Should 

Norse Stories 

48. Joel Chandler Harris 
Uncle Remus 

49. Helen Keller 

The Story of My Life 

50. Owen Wister 
The Virginian 


France has not so many telephones as Chicago. Greece 
has not as many telephones as some of the largest American 
office buildings. In this country there is one telephone to 
every nine persons, and two thirds of the telephoning of the 
world is over the twenty-four million miles of wire in the 
Bell system. Because, therefore, of the great importance of 
the telephone in modern business and social life, you will 
wish to know how to use it effectively. In what three ways 
can you deliver most quickly a message to some one at a 
distance? Which method insures the speediest answer? 

Since the average American is 'never seen to greater dis- 
advantage than when telephoning, you may be glad to 
know that you can learn how to use the telephone without 
any great amount of trouble. 

To carry on a series of telephone conversations. 

Suggestions. — 

1 . Think over what you wish to say just as you would 
if you were to write a letter. Make a note of the items 
of special importance. Have a pad and pencil ready to jot 
down important information obtained. 

2. Remove the receiver from the hook and give the 
number to the operator in response to her, '' Number, 
please? " 

3. Call the number in this manner: "Bryant three., 


178 Community English 

four, one, six, for '' Bryant 3416" ; or "North two, seven, 
o, four, party W, for '' North 2704 — W." 

4. When the operator repeats the number you should 
say, " Correct " or " No." If she has made a mistake she 
will then correct it. 

5. As soon as the connection has been made, say, 
" Agnes Brown speaking." Such an introduction is not 
only a matter of courtesy but it is also necessary in order 
that the person at the other end of the wire may know 
who is speaking. Unsigned letters receive no attention, 
neither should telephone conversations which begin like 
this: " Hello, guess who this is." 

6. If you are either giving or receiving information, be 
definite in your answers or questions. 

7. Listen carefully to the person speaking at the other 
end of the wire. Never try to talk to some one at your 
side while you are telephoning. 

8. " If you please," and " 1 thank you " do not take 
very much time and yet they are important in telephone 

9. If your telephone conversation is in the nature of a 
social call, try to have something of real interest to say. 
Do not gossip so long that important messages may be 

10. Always verify an important telephoned order by 
repeating the message. 

11. When making a long distance call, ask the operator 
for " Long Distance " or " Toll Operator," in reply to her 
question, " Number, please? " 

12. When you wish to- telephone a telegram, call " Wes- 
tern Union " or " Postal Telegraph." 

Telephone Conversations 179 

13. In case of fire, call " Fire Department, Emergency." 

14. In case of burglars, call " Police Department, 

15. If you wish to call a certain department of a large 
firm you may follow this routine : 

Operator " Number, please? " 

Yoii " Main six, four, one, o." 

Operator /' Main six, eight, one, o." 

You " No, six, four, one, o." 

Operator /' Main, six, four, one, o." 

You "Correct." 

Pause for connection. 
Private operator. . . .''Lord and Taylor's." 

You '' Give me the shoe department, please." 

Pause for connection. 
Clerk in shoe department. . . ."Lord and Taylor's Shoe De- 

You ......." This is John Jones. ..." (state 

your message). 

Telephone assignments. — Let the following assign- 
ments suggest to you a series of telephone conversations 
which you may carry on over a real telephone or which you 
may carry on over an imaginary telephone in your class- 
room. A classmate may take the part of the person to 
whom you are talking by wire. Remember always to be 
clear, to be brief, to be courteous, and to be distinct. 

I . Carry on all the telephone communication necessary 

in connection with the arrangements for your class supper. 

a. Telephone the Principal of your school and ask 

his permission to hold the supper. Describe 

your plans in detail. 

l8o Community English 

h. Call up a hotel and make reservations for the 
supper. State the time, the date, and the num- 
ber expected to attend. Ask about the charges 
per plate. 

c. Telephone the florist and ask that three dozen 
pink roses be delivered at the hotel, just before 
the supper. 

d. Telephone the manager of the street railroad 
company and make arrangements for a special 
car from the school to the hotel. 

e. Call up one of your classmates and ask him to act 
as toastmaster at the supper. 

2. Carry on all the communication necessary in connec- 
tion with arrangements for an interschool debate. 

a. Telephone your Principal for permission to 
challenge another school to a debate. State in 
detail all your plans. 
h. Imagine that the challenge is sent and accepted. 
Telephone the Principal of the rival school of 
important reasons for changing the date of the 

c. Telephone the Superintendent of Schools in your 
city, asking him to act as chairman of the 

d. Telephone a man prominent in the Hfe of your 
community, asking him to act as one of the 
judges of the contest. 

e. Telephone the ofhce of one of your local papers, 
asking that an announcement of the debate be 
made in the Wednesday night edition. 

Telephone Conversations i8i 

3. Telephone the mother of your chum, that he has 
been hurt in an automobile accident. 

4. Telephone a ticket agent in your town, asking him 
to make reservations for you on the " Empire." 

5. Telephone your plumber of a leaking hot water 
pipe in your house. Explain what has happened and ask 
for immediate help. 

6. Call up your music teacher and cancel your appoint- 
ment for a lesson. 

7. Telephone the '' Lost and Found " department of 
the Electric railroad and make inquiries for a lost umbrella. 

8. Call up the manager of a large department store and 
ask him for an advertisement for your school paper. 

9. Call up the manager of a factory in your locality and 
make arrangements for a visit of inspection by your 

10. Telephone the local ticket ofhce and make inquiries 
about a trip to Washington, D.C. 

11. Telephone an order to your grocer. Explain that 
you have decided to open a charge account at his store and 
give him several references. 

12. Telephone a friend, accepting an informal invitation 
to dinner. 

13. Telephone to an old friend in the city, telling him of 
your life in the country and mentioning several of its 

14. At Christmas time your class has collected a number 
of gifts for the less fortunate ones of your city. Tele- 
phone the Charities Aid Association and ask for the ad- 
dresses of some families whom your gifts might help. 

15. Telephone the postmaster and make inquiries about 

1 82 Community English 

a Special Delivery letter which has not been delivered. 
Tell him who you are and state your address. 

1 6. Telephone a friend about a visit you have just 
made to the home of some well-known American. 

17. Your father has promised to take you and some of 
your friends for a sail on the river next Saturday if the 
weather is suitable. Telephone two or three friends, ask- 
ing them to join you. 


*' In a democracy where each citizen has a voice and a 
vote in the government, he should be able to use the 
privilege of free speech to the best advantage." 

'' The manner in which one speaks his mother tongue is! 
looked upon as showing more clearly than any other one 
thing what his culture is and what his associations have-, 

What are your reasons for beHeving that both the preced- 
ing quotations are true? How do you judge a stranger, by 
his clothes or his speech ? Give at least four reasons for the 
necessity of forming correct speech habits. Show that to 
each of the persons mentioned below, correct speech has a 
money value : 

A doctor, a teacher, an office boy, a salesman, a sales- 
girl, a minister, a business man or woman, a nurse, 
a reporter, a lawyer, an insurance agent, a business 
Mention, if you can, one person who does not need to 
speak well. The next time you Hsten to a pubUc speaker, 
ask yourself these questions : Does he speak distinctly ? 
Are his sentences monotonous because he fails to use em- 
phasis? Does he make his subject interesting to his 
audience? What suggestions can I get from this speaker 
which will help me to improve my English? Perhaps, as 
yet, you have never been called upon to speak in public, 
but the time is surely coming when you will be glad to 


184 Community English 

know how to express your ideas to a group of people. In 
order that you may give your entire attention to a clear, 
forceful, and dignified expression of your thought and that 
you may not be puzzled by how to go about it, this Under- 
taking has been suggested. 

At first, the form of the short speech may seem strange 
to you, but with practice you will find that the form has 
slipped into the background and unconsciously you have 
become right in your manner of speaking upon formal 
occasions. Do you not think that you would enjoy acting 
as toastmaster at your class supper? Perhaps, you would 
like better to introduce the speaker of the evening, or to 
present to the school a beautiful picture — the gift of your 
class. It is just possible that you may have to thank the 
class for a farewell gift given to you. Surely you wish to 
know what to do under any or all of these circumstances. 


To make a speech of introduction. 

Suggestions. — Imagine that you are the presiding 
officer at a class meeting. Make a short speech introducing 
a person of prominence in your community who is to 
address your class upon a subject connected with your 
English work : " The Value of Good English from the 
Business Man's Point of View," or " Why Correct English 
is of Importance to a Girl," or '' Slang." 

1. Speak of your pleasure at having the opportunity of 
introducing such a distinguished guest. 

2. Mention the reason for the prominence of your guest. 

The Short Speech 185 

Tell of his work, or of his life, of his interests, or of his public 

3. State the subject to be discussed by the speaker. 

4. Announce the speaker's name in full. 

5. Having decided upon what you wish to say, you may 
make an outline of your most important points upon a small 
card or slip of paper. 

6. Remember to stand up straight, to speak clearly and 
distinctly enough for all to hear, and to pronounce all words 

7. Be natural and earnest. Do not strive for effect and 
remember that your audience is in sympathy with you. 

8. Read carefully the model speeches of introduction 
given at the end of this chapter, they may suggest helpful 
ideas to you. 


I. Make a short speech of presentation. 

Suggestions. — Imagine that your class wishes to make 
a gift of a beautiful silk flag to the school. You may sub- 
stitute for the flag any of the following : a curtain for the 
school stage, books for the school library, a picture for 
your classroom, a gift to your teacher at Christmas time, 
or a farewell gift to any classmate. 

1. Address the chairman of the meeting and your class- 

2. Mention the class in whose name you present the flag. 

3. Speak of your pleasure at having this opportunity. 

4. State the name of the school which is to receive the 

i86 Community English 

5. Speak of some of the ideals for which the flag stands. 

6. Observe the suggestions given in the preceding 

7. Read carefully the model speeches of presentation 
given at the end of this chapter. 

//. Make a short speech of acceptance. 

Suggestions. — Imagine that you have been chosen by 
your school to receive the gift of the silk flag. 

1. As in the former Undertaking, address the chairman 
and your friends. 

2. Mention your happiness at having been chosen to 
receive such a beautiful gift in the name of your school. 

3. Thank the class which gave the flag. 

4. Tell how the pupils of your school intend to live up 
to the ideals of Americanism for which the flag stands. 

///. To respond to a toast. 

Suggestions. — Imagine that you are present at a class 
supper or banquet where the toastmaster calls upon you 
to make a few remarks. This reply to a sentiment pro- 
posed by the toastmaster is called the response to a toast. 
Sometimes, in connection with the school work in domestic 
science, the EngHsh class is asked to attend a simple dinner 
served at the school. 

1. Do all your " fixing " of hair, necktie, etc., before you 

2. Use clear, simple, and forceful words. Avoid flowery 

3. Be original. Dare to think your own thoughts. 

i88 Community English 

4. If you wish, you may use stories and quotations as 

5. If you would do credit to yourself 

Have something you wish to say, 
Say it as well as you can, 

6. At the beginning of your speech, address the toast- 
master in these words : " Mr. Toastmaster, and — here you 
may add the words — " friends," or '^ classmates." 

7. Read carefully the toasts given at the end of this 
chapter. Note the form of the toast as well as the subject 
discussed by the speaker. 

I V. Plan a short talk to be given at exercises held in your 
school on any of the following days : Washingtofi^s Birthday, 
Memorial Day, Thanksgiving Day, or Lincoln'' s Birthday. 

V. Give a talk to accompany pictures thrown on a screen 
from a lantern. 

VI. Make a brief announcement of a postponed club meet- 
ing, of an athletic contest, or of a debate. 

VII. Imagine that you are the captain of the football team. 
Make a short speech urging more loyal support of the team, 

VIII. Imagine that you have been asked by the school bird 
club to speak at the next meeting upon the " Methods of 
Protecting Birds J' Plan the speech. 

IX. Imagine that you are the employer of a large number 
of men. Give a talk to the men and tell them about your 
business plans for the coming year, 

X. Imagine that you are the chairman of a school debate. 
Announce the subject, mention the judges by name, and state 
the names of the speakers. 

The Short Speech 189 

XI. Preach a short funeral sermon for Poor English, 

XII. Make a two minute speech before the members of 
another class in favor of a Thrift Campaign. 

XIII. Make a short speech to the members of the board of 
education in favor of a new school playground. 

XI V. Make a short speech urging the importance of work 
in the Junior Red Cross. 

X V. Give a short talk to which a toastmaster could give the 
title, " Critical Moments in the Life of Thomas A. Edison.^' 
For the name of Mr. Edison you may substitute one of the 
following : 

Colonel George Goethals Florence Nightingale 

Alice Freeman Palmer Lewis Carroll 

Jane Addams Hans Andersen 

Lillian Nordica Frances E. Willard 

Paul Lawrence Dunbar Henry van Dyke 

Helen Gould Shepard Susan B . Anthony 

Martin Luther Robert Burns 

Helen Keller Andrew Carnegie 

David Lloyd-George Alexis Carrel 

Luther Burbank Rosa Bonheur 

XVI. Imagine that you have been chosen by your class 
to give the address of welcome at the commencement exercises. 
Give the speech. 

XVII. The Parents^ Association of the school joins with 
your class in the celebration of Lincoln^ s Birthday. Make a 
short speech in which you bid your guests welcome. 

XVIII. Imagine that you are the chairman of a great 
school m^ass meeting. In a brief speech, welcome home the 
members of your victorious football team. 

IQO Community English 

XIX. Imagine that you have been chosen by your class to 
respond to the address of welcome given by the president of the 
Alumni Association. Give your speech. 

Speeches of Introduction. — The first two speeches were 
made by Vice-President Calvin Coolidge at the Lodge- 
Lowell debate held in Boston, March 19, 191 9. 

1. We are gathered here to-night as the representatives of a 
great people to hear the discussion of a great question by great 
men. All America desires that the peace which our brave 
soldiers have won with the sword should be made secure by 
fact and by parchment. That is a duty that we owe ahke to 
the living and to the dead. Fortunate is Massachusetts that 
it has two citizens so eminently fitted to discuss for us this 
question, for wherever statesmen gather, wherever men love 
letters, the discussion of this evening will be read and pondered. 
Of these two great sons of Massachusetts the one is the senior 
senator of the Commonwealth, the other a president of a uni- 
versity established under our Constitution. The first to address 
you is a senator preeminent in Massachusetts, honored here and 
famous abroad — Henry Cabot Lodge. 

2. The next to address you is the President of Harvard Uni- 
versity, an educator renowned throughout the world, a profound 
student of government and the science of statesmanship, truly 
a master of arts, eminently a doctor of lavv^s, fitted to represent 
the Massachusetts domain of letters — Abbott Lawrence 

3. Mr. Chairman and Friends : Although the speaker of the 
afternoon is a figure of great prominence in the industrial world, 
the story of his life is not very well known. He was but six 
years old when his father died. At considerable sacrifice his 
mother kept her son in school until he was fourteen ; then he 
took a ''job" as an office boy in an insurance office. At the 

The Short Speech 191 

age of twenty he became bookkeeper in a savings bank, and it 
was while thus employed that he worked out the process which 
later led to his invention of a photographic roll film — the film 
that made the kodak possible. Gradually, by continued in- 
ventions and by buying up other formulas and patents, his 
business has developed until he now controls one of the largest 
photographic supply houses in the world. 

It gives me great pleasure, therefore, to introduce to you the 
speaker of the afternoon, Mr. George Eastman of Rochester, 
New York, who will speak to you upon the subject, "The Ro- 
mance of the Kodak." Mr. Eastman. 

Speeches of Presentation. — 

1. Mr. Chairman and Classmates: 

Because of exceptional bravery in his rescue of a boy com- 
panion at Owasco Lake last summer, Wayne Joy has been 
judged a hero. The rescue was one of the most thrilling in the 
history of Central New York and most of you already know its 
story. You will remember that while bathing with companions 
on July 4, Wayne, at that time only ten years old, was attracted 
by the cries of David Darby, an Auburn lad some twelve years 
of age. Wayne jumped from the pier and, although of much 
slighter build, managed to support Darby until assistance came. 
Darby was practically unconscious when Wayne reached him. 

Therefore, in behalf of the Carnegie Memorial Society, I 
am very happy to-day to award this beautiful gold medal and a 
substantial sum of money to one of my own classmates — 
Wayne R. Joy of the Groton Grammar School. 

2. Mr. President and Friends : You have been requested to 
assemble here to meet J. P. Chandler because this is one of the 
most important events in his life. Fifty years ago he entered 
the employ of this company. During all these years he has 
given to the firm loyal, valuable, and efficient service, sparing 

192 Community English 

neither time nor effort for its success, and always giving the 
best that there was in him. But more than all this he has en- 
deared himself in the heart and affection of every one of us. 

I think you will agree with me that frequently when you were 
anxious and troubled, he has straightened things out; and by 
his wise counsel, sympathy, and understanding has sent you 
away happy and contented. We congratulate him heartily 
upon his reaching this fiftieth anniversary and sincerely hope 
that his present good health will continue for many years. 

To commemorate the event and as a symbol of our high regard, 
affection and esteem for him the firm takes great pleasure in 
presenting this loving cup on which is inscribed the following : 

"In appreciation of fifty years' Loyal 
Faithful, and Efficient Service." 

Speeches of Acceptance. — 

1. This is part of a speech delivered at Christiania, 
Norway, May 5, 1910, by Colonel Theodore Roosevelt: 

It is with peculiar pleasure that I stand here to-day to express 
the deep appreciation I feel of the high honor conferred upon 
me by the presentation of the Nobel Peace Prize. The gold 
medal, which formed part of the prize, I shall always keep, and 
I shall hand it on to my children as a precious heirloom. 

2. When President Lowell was inaugurated as President 
of Harvard University he replied in these words : 

It is with a deep sense of responsibility that I receive at your 
hands these insignia of the ofiice to which the governing boards 
have chosen me. You have charged me with a great trust, 
second in importance to no other, for the education of American 
youth, and therefore for the intellectual and moral welfare of 
our country. 

The Short Speech 193 

I pray that I may be granted the wisdom, the strength, and 
the patience which are needed in no common measure; that 
Harvard may stand in the future, as she has stood under the 
long Hne of my predecessors, for the development of true man- 
hood and for the advancement of sound learning, and that her 
sons may go forth with a chivalrous resolve that the world shall 
be better for the years they have spent within these walls. 

3. Upon William Cullen Bryant's seventieth birthday a 
group of artists gave him a beautiful portfolio. He ac- 
cepted it with these words : 

Allow me through you, as one of their representatives, to 
return to the artists of the "Century" my best acknowledg- 
ments for the superb gift they have made me. I have no title 
to it but their generosity, yet I rejoice to possess it, and shall 
endeavor to preserve it as long as I live. 

Among the artists of the country are some of my oldest and 
best friends. In their conversation I have taken great delight, 
and derived from it much instruction. In them the love and 
the study of nature tend to preserve the native simplicity of 
character, to make them frank and ingenuous, and divert their 
attention from selfish interests. I shall prize this gift, therefore, 
not only as a memorial of the genius of our artists, in which 
respect alone it possesses a high value, but also as a token of 
the goodwill of a class of men for whom I cherish a particular 
regard and esteem. 

Speeches of Welcome. — 

I . The following greeting is part of an address of welcome 
by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge to Southern veterans 
visiting Boston : 

We welcome you soldiers of Virginia to New England. We 
welcome you to old Massachusetts. We welcome you to Boston 

194 Community English 

and to Faneuil Hall. In your presence here, and at the sound 
of your voices beneath this historic roof, the years roll back, 
and we see the figure and hear again the ringing tones of your 
great orator, Patrick Henry, declaring to the first Continental 
Congress, ''The distinctions between Virginians, Pennsylvanians, 
New Yorkers, and New Englanders are no more. I am not a 
Virginian, but an American." 

So I say that the sentiment manifested by your presence here, 
brethren of Virginia, sitting side by side with those who wore 
the blue, * * * is fraught with tidings of peace on earth, and 
you may read its meaning in the words on yonder picture, 
"Liberty and union, now and forever, one and inseparable!" 

2. When Yale University was two hundred years old. 
President Hadley began his address of welcome to Yale's 
guests in this way : 

Of all the pleasures and the duties which a birthday brings 
with it, the most welcome duty and the most exalted pleasure 
is found in the opportunity which it affords of seeing, united 
under one roof, the fellow-members of a family who are often 
far separated. On this two-hundredth birthday of Yale Uni- 
versity, it is our chief pride to have with us the representatives 
of that brotherhood of learning which knows no bounds of time 
or place, of profession or creed. 

Speeches of Farewell. — 

I. When Abraham Lincoln left his Illinois home to go 
to the White House, he said good-by to his friends and 
neighbors in these words : 

My Friends : — 

No one not in my situation can appreciate my feeling of 
sadness at this parting. To this place, and the kindness of this 

The Short Speech 195 

people, I owe everything. Here I have lived a quarter of a 
century, and have passed from a young to an old man. Here 
my children have been born, and one is buried. 

I now leave, not knowing when or whether ever I may return, 
with a task before me greater than that which rested upon 
Washington. Without the assistance of that Divine Being 
who ever attended him, I cannot succeed. With that assistance, 
I cannot fail. 

Trusting in Him who can go with me, and remain with you, 
and be everywhere for good, let us confidently hope that all 
will yet be well. To His care commending you, as I hope in 
your prayers you will commend me, I bid you an affectionate 

2. This is Robert E. Lee's speech of farew^ell to the army 
of northern Virginia, delivered at Appomattox Court 
House, April 10, 1865 : 

After four years of arduous service, marked by unsurpassed 
courage and fortitude, the army of northern Virginia has been 
compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers and resources. 
I need not tell the survivors of so many hard-fought battles, 
who have remained steadfast to the last, that I have consented 
to this result from no distrust of them ; but feeling that valor 
and devotion could accomplish nothing that would compensate 
for the loss that would have attended the continuation of the 
contest, I have determined to avoid the useless sacrifice of those 
whose past services have endeared them to their countrymen. 

By the terms of the agreement, officers and men can return to 
their homes, and remain there until exchanged. You will take 
with you the satisfaction that proceeds from the consciousness 
of duty faithfully performed; and I earnestly pray that a 
merciful God will extend to you his blessing and protection. 

With an unceasing admiration for your constancy and de- 

196 Community English 

votion to your country, and a grateful remembrance of your 
kind and generous consideration of myself, I bid you an affec- 
tionate farewell. 

After-dinner Speeches and Toasts. — 

1. Here is an introduction to a toast by Joseph H. 
Choate : 

I came here to-night with some notes for a speech in my 
pocket, but I have been sitting next to General Butler, and in 
the course of the evening; they have mysteriously disappeared. 
The consequence is, gentlemen, that you may expect a very 
good speech from him and a very poor one from me. When I 
read this toast which you have just etc., etc. 

2. This is the introduction to a toast by Henry E. How- 

Mr. Toastmaster and Friends, — 

We are assembled to crown with honors those who, on land 
and sea, with unparalleled courage and devotion, have borne 
their flag to victory in desperate encounters. Gentlemen of 
the bat, the oar, the racquet, the cinder path, and the leather 
sphere, never were conquerors more welcome guests, in palace 
or in hall, at the tables of their friends than you are here. You 
come with your laurels fresh from the fields you have won, to 
receive the praise which is your due and which we so gladly 
. bestow. Your self-denial, devotion, skill, and courage have 
brought honor to your University, and for it we honor you. 

3. The following words are from a speech by Senator 
George Graham Vest : 

The one absolutely unselfish friend a man may have in this 
selfish world is the dog. A man's dog stands by him in pros- 
perity and in poverty, in health and in sickness. He will sleep 

The Short Speech 197 

on the cold ground, where the wintry winds blow and snow 
drives fiercely, if only he may be near his master's side. He will 
kiss the hand that has no food to offer, he will lick the wounds 
and sores that come in encounters with the roughness of the 
world. He guards the sleep of his pauper master as if he were 
a prince. When all other friends desert, he remains. When 
riches take wings and reputation falls to pieces, he is as constant 
in his love as the sun in its journey through the heavens. 

If fortune drives the master forth an outcast into the world, 
friendless and homeless, the faithful dog asks no higher privilege 
than that of accompanying him. When the last scene of all 
comes, no matter if all other friends pursue their way, there by 
his grave-side will the noble dog be found, his head between 
his paws, his eyes sad but open in alert watchfulness, faithful 
and true even unto death. 

Speeches for Various Occasions. — 

I. Here is Logan's speech to Lord Dunmore, Governor of 
Virginia : 

I appeal to any white man to say if ever he entered Logan's 
cabin hungry, and he gave him not meat ; if ever he came cold 
and naked, and he clothed him not. During the course of the 
last long and bloody war Logan remained idle in his cabin, an 
advocate for peace. Such was my love for the whites that my 
countrymen pointed at me as they passed, and said: "Logan 
is the friend of the white men." 

I had even thought to have lived with you, but for the injuries 
of one man. Colonel Cresap, the last spring, in cold blood and 
unprovoked, murdered all the relations of Logan, not sparing 
even my women and children. There runs not a drop of my 
blood in the veins of any living creature. 

This called on me for revenge. I have sought it. I have 
killed many. For my country, I rejoice at the beams of peace. 

198 Community English 

But do not think that mine is the joy of fear. Logan will not 
turn on his heel to save his Hfe. Who is there to mourn for 
Logan ? Not one ! 

2. The following speech is the famous Gettysburg 
address given by President Lincoln at the dedication of the 
National Cemetery, November 19, 1863 : 

Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on 
this continent a new nation, conceived in Hberty, and dedicated 
to the proposition that all men are created equal. 

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether 
that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can 
long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. 
We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting 
place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might 
live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. 

But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate — we cannot con- 
secrate — we cannot hallow — this ground. The brave men, 
living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far 
above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little 
note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never for- 
get what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather, to be 
dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought 
here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be 
here dedicated to the great task remaining before us — that 
from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that 
cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion ; 
that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died 
in vain ; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of 
freedom ; and that government of the people, by the people, 
for the people, shall not perish from the earth. 


Have you ever visited a museum? What exhibit did 
you Hke best? Have you made a collection of butterflies 
or stamps or coins or shells or anything else which might 
make an interesting exhibit if displayed in your Enghsh 
classroom? Would you enjoy bringing your collection to 
school and telling your classmates about it? Do you think 
you would enjoy listening to the annual lecture by some 
great explorer or scientist — the guest of your class ? The 
following extract from a letter of a Massachusetts school 
boy indicates what such lectures meant to him : 

Do you think I would have been to the frozen north with 
Peary and Stefansson or to the hot equator with Akeley if it 
had not been for our class museum Undertaking? I believe 
the best I would have been able to say was that I had read of 
them in the silent pages of a book. 


To give short talks illustrated by exhibits in your 
class museum. 

Suggestions. — 

I. Discuss with your teacher and classmates the 
possibility of working out this Undertaking. Is there 
room for a display of exhibits? Is the principal of your 
school willing for you to have such an exhibit? Choose 
a committee from your class to lay the matter before him. 


200 Community English 

Are there shelves or cases in which such an exhibit might 
be displayed? 

2. If your teacher and principal approve of your working 
out this Undertaking, you may write a letter to some one 
interested in the affairs of the school, asking for the loan 
of glass cases or book cases without glass, to hold your 
specimens. The best letter written will be sent. 

3. If you wish, you may offer for display in the class mu- 
seum any collection which you have already made. The 
following list merely suggests other exhibits which have 
been displayed in class museums : 


Mounted animals 



Odd specimens of flowers, twigs, and shrubs 





Curios from foreign lands 

Stamp collections 

Collections of coins 

Indian relics (blankets, costumes, weapons, instru- 
ments, etc.) 

Collections of various kinds of furs or pictures of 
fur-bearing animals 

Copies of old newspapers, magazines, documents, etc. 

Industrial exhibits, showing the development of such 
fabrics as cotton from the raw stage to the finished 

The Class Museum 201 




Baking powder 



Oil products 

Pictures of American industries 

4. Large sheets of cardboard fitted with elastic bands 
often serve to hold small bottles containing specimens. 

5. Frequently, the manufacturers of products are willing 
to give classes sample exhibits of their products. Through 
the courtesy of the American Sugar Refining Company, one 
English class has in its museum an exhibition of thirty- 
six bottles of sugar and its various sirups. Thirteen of 
these show the 'steps in refining, and twenty-three show 
different kinds of sugar in use by various trades. 

6. In this Undertaking, the talk which accompanies the 
display of exhibits is of greatest importance. Be prepared 
to give a short talk upon any exhibit which interests you. 
Plan out the things you wish to say. Remember to stand 
up straight, facing the class. Speak slowly and distinctly, 
using simple words and complete sentences. If your class- 
mates do not understand what you say, they have no chance 
to go back over your words to puzzle out the meaning. 

7. Be ready to criticize the talks given by your class- 
mates. Always mention the good points of the discussion 


a. Was the talk interesting? 

b. Did he " stick to the point " 

c. Did he speak distinctly? 

202 Community English 

d. Were there any mistakes in pronunciation? 

e. Were any important details omitted? 

/. What suggestions can you give him to help him 
make his oral English more effective? 

g. What hints can you get from him which will help 
you to improve your own oral English? 

8. If possible, arrange for the visit of a noted explorer or 
scientist who shall be the guest of your class. Questions 
concerning his transportation, fees, and entertainment may 
be discussed in class, for all arrangements rest with you. 

9. Listen carefully to such a talk or lecture. Pretend 
that you are a newspaper reporter and write up the talk 
for your class paper or magazine. The best report will be 

10. Discuss these questions : 

a. How would the bird talks given in class help 
prepare boys for the nature test given for first 
class Scouts? 

h. How would Girl Scouts be helped in winning 
merit badges by the talks about birds, flowers, and 
trees, given in connection with this Undertaking? 

11. At the end of the year you may take away your own 
specimens if you wish, or you may give them to the school 
to help start a permanent collection. 

12. The following titles were chosen as the subjects for 
talks by the boys and girls of one English class : 

What It Means to Work like a Beaver 
How Nature Prepares Trees for Winter 
Building Materials in Everyday Use 
Trees That Make Winter Beautiful 

The Class Museum 203 

The Fishing Industry (Each group of pupils discussed 
a different part of the subject) 

Opera Singers in Birdland 

Plants Used in Medicine 

How Grandfather Traveled 

May Flowers 

My Collection of Coins 

The Story of the Honey Makers 

The Larch Tree — a Favorite with Birds and 

Indian Weapons 

The Sugar Exhibit 
The Sugar Exhibit. — The girl who gave this talk intro- 
duced her subject in this way : 

Although to-day we seem to consider sugar one of the great 
necessities of life, all of us may not be aware that its use as a 
common article of food is only about three hundred years old. 
The cultivation of sugar was carried on before that in India 
along the Ganges River and the natives there knew how to 
boil the cane juice and obtain sugar from it. The Eg\^tians, 
the Chinese, and the natives of the East Indies also cultivated 
the cane in those early days. The Arabs probably carried it 
into Southern Europe at the time of the Arab invasion of that 
part of the world. 

Spanish explorers of the early fifteenth century brought the 
cultivation of cane sugar across the Atlantic Ocean to the West 
Indies, with the result that one of these islands — Cuba — has 
become the greatest source of cane sugar in the world for the 
United States. 

Sugar comes to the refineries in the raw state. The very 
interesting exhibit before us shows the process this raw sugar 
passes through before it comes to our tables. 



In the days of chivalry, mail-clad knights, armed with 

shield and spear, rode through the land to defend the right 
and to punish the wrong. To-day there are thousands of 
American boys and girls who are as truly knights, cam- 
paigners, and crusaders. Look up the word campaign in 
the dictionary. Does it always represent political or 
mihtary activities? Is a campaign a crusade? Ask some 
Yone to tell you, or find out for yourself, about the Children's 
Crusade of 121 2. Perhaps, you have already taken part 
in a campaign called a drive. A Junior Red Cross drive, a 
health campaign, a week devoted to morals and manners, 
and a campaign for better English are but a few of the 
campaigns which have been conducted by boys and 
girls about your age in connection with their English 

Such an Undertaking as this calls for much originality 
and thought and common sense on your part, but it is sure 
to prove interesting. Many people in the community will 
wish to know about your plans, so you must give publicity 
to the campaign. Letters to the mayor, editorials in your 
school paper, and talks before your classmates or groups 
of people in your neighborhood, all help to make the 
campaign successful. 


2o6 Communit}' English 


To help arrange and carry on a public health cam- 

Instructions. — 

1. Discuss with your teacher and classmates the advan- 
tages to your school and to the community of such a 

2. Write upon the blackboard a list of the plans you 
hope to carry out. 

3. Choose a committee to lay this Undertaking before 
the principal of your school, and let another committee dis- 
cuss your plans with teachers in your building, asking 
them to cooperate with you. 

4. Write to a person of prominence in your community, 
asking him to speak to your class upon a subject of impor- 
tance in the campaign. Each pupil will write a letter and 
the best letter will be sent. Make arrangements for one of 
your classmates to introduce the speaker. 

5. Be prepared to make short campaign speeches — 
not over two minutes — before other classes or groups 
of your townspeople. 

6. If possible, arrange to give a short play in which your 
plans and purposes for the campaign are clearly set forth. 

7. Make streamers, banners, and posters to help you 
advertise your campaign. The posters may be 28 inches 
by 22 inches in size and each should bear an illustrated 
slogan. Display such posters as effectively as possible 
upon the walls of your classroom or of the halls. Some- 
times a reward is offered for the best poster. 

Campaigns 207 

8. Write to the editor of one of your local papers, calling 
attention to your campaign. 

9. Write jingles and parodies about the campaign. 

10. W^hen giving your talks during the campaign, pay 
special attention to the pronunciation of your consonants 
in such words as hearing, seeing, doing, and the like. Re- 
member that a word spoken indistinctly denotes careless- 
ness and that a word mispronounced denotes ignorance. 

1 1 . Try to make the expression of your thought effective 
by the use of simple figures of speech. 

12. Write up the results of your campaign for the school 
paper. Perhaps, the local papers will be glad to have you 
act as reporter for them during the campaign. 

13. Study carefully these special suggestions : 

a. Discuss the value of modern knighthood. Com- 
pare dragons of old with disease dragons of 
5. Choose one of the following subjects to investigate 
and report upon in class : 

Why school children should be tested for de- 
^ fects of eye, ear, nose, and throat. 

Conditions in your community which are men- 
aces to public health. 
The duties of public health officers in your 
community. In what way can you cooperate 
with these officers? 
How pure food laws have benefited the com- 
munity. What danger Hes in the use of pa- 
tent medicines? 
The effect of open-air schools upon the health 
of teachers and pupils. How does the air 

2o8 Community English 

breathed out differ from that breathed in? 
From the standpoint of health, why is a sleep- 
ing porch one of the most profitable invest- 
ments that can be made? 
State laws in regard to common drinking cups 
and roller towels. 

c. Arrange a debate upon one of the following 
subjects : 

Vaccination of school children should be com- 

The fly is more dangerous to public health than 
is the mosquito. 

Medical inspection of school children should be 
controlled by the school board and not by the 
local board of health. 

d. Form a league of Modern Health Crusaders. 
Write to the National Tuberculosis Association, 
370 Seventh Avenue, New York City, for definite 
information as to how such a league may be 
formed. Free circulars will be sent you upon 
receipt of your request. 


I. To conduct a campaign for the protection of birds. 
Instructions. — 

1 . Follow the instructions given in the preceding Under- 
taking on how to conduct a campaign. 

2. The protection of birds may be best brought about 
by the formation of a Bird Club. Such a club, composed 
of all the pupils of the class, may be called the Audubon 

Campaigns 209 

Club. Write a letter to the National Association of Audu- 
bon Societies, 1974 Broadway, New York City, asking that 
details and suggestions for forming such a club be forwarded 
to you. The society will gladly send you circulars. 

3. Ask your school librarian to devote a shelf to books 
about your feathered friends. 

4. Keep a record of the work your club accompHshes, so 
that your final report in class may be accurate. 

5. Be prepared to give a short speech before the pupils 
of another class upon the subject : " How to Protect the 
Birds Found in This Vicinity." 

6. Keep a record or bird diary in which you note : food 
habits of birds, bird enemies, methods for attracting birds, 
number of bird houses, feeding places and fountains con- 
structed because of your campaign, characteristics of the 
different birds, how birds benefit your community. 

7. Read pages 129-136 of Baynes' Wild Bird Guests for 
valuable suggestions about your bird conservation cam- 

//. To help plan and carry on a Thrift campaign. 

Instructions. — 

1 . Ask the pupils in the various grades of your school to 
compete with you in a stamp sale contest. Each Friday 
at the close of school, give your teacher a record of the 
thrift stamps purchased by you during the week. The 
room having the largest average number of thrift stamps 
for each pupil will have the honor of hanging the Thrift 
banner upon its walls for the following week. 

2. Set a definite sum for your class to save and remember 

21 o Community English 

that the ideas of Thrift week should last throughout the 

3 . Write to a person prominent in your community asking 
him to speak to your class about the value of '' A Penny 
Saved," or " Wise and Careful Buying." 

4. Write to another friend of the school asking him to 
donate a Thrift banner. 

5. The following account was written by a pupil in the 
eighth grade : 

Thrift week resulted in the sale of stamps to the amount of 
$187.51. The third grade holds the record for the week, $37.00. 
Twenty-two different pupils took part. The second grade holds 
the second place with $29.13. The seventh grade is the first 
to report 100 per cent participation. Other classes are ap- 
proaching the goal. 

6. Here is part of a letter sent out by the Secretary of the 
Treasury urging cultivation of habits of thrift and economy : 

To the School Boys and School Girls of America : 

In addressing the twenty million or more school boys and 
girls of this country, I am addressing the citizenship — the 
business and professional men and women, the producers and 
consumers and the home makers of only a few years hence. 
The responsibility of all the problems of our country will ulti- 
mately fall upon you. 


The habit of earning and saving money is a most interesting 
and happy one. I am sure that this habit has become so fasci- 
nating to you that you will continue to earn and to save through 
all the months and years to come and keep investing what you 
save in government securities. 

Campaigns 211 

It is my personal hope that the lessons of thrift that are being 
taught in your school may help you to develop in your life 
permanent habits of saving and thereby lay a foundation for 
your personal happiness and usefulness and ultimately for a 
bigger and better America. 

Sincerely yours, 

Carter Glass 

///. To help arrange and carry on a Safety First campaign. 

Instructions. — 

1 . The aids used in your Safety First campaign may in- 
clude the following : 

Safety First buttons, posters for bulletin boards, talks 
by prominent persons about subjects connected with 
the campaign, short speeches by each member of the 
class, first aid talks and demonstrations by Boy Scouts 
or Camp Fire Girls, and motion pictures which show 
safety first devices. 

2. Discuss with your teacher and classmates recent 
accidents in your community, their causes, and the ways 
to prevent them. Find out how many automobile, rail- 
road, and electric car accidents there were in your city 
last year. How many industrial accidents were there? 
Why is the matter of Safety First of such importance? 

3. Arrange a class debate with this as a subject: 

The White Cross (the national organization for the 
safety of industrial w^orkers) is a greater rescuer from 
constant peril than is the Red Cross. 

4. The watchword of the Red Cross is, ^' The prevention 
of accidents and the prevention of infection." How does 
this slogan apply to you? 

212 Community English 

5. The class may he divided into groups which will in- 
vestigate and report upon your state laws for Safety First 
in regulating railroads, mines, automobiles, factories, large 
corporations, and foods. 

6. Write for suggestions in regard to safety methods 
and appliances to The National Council of Industrial 
Safety, New York City, or to The National First Aid 
Association of America, ArHngton, Massachusetts. 

IV. To help carry on a Clean Up campaign. 

Instructions. — 

1. Be prepared to discuss the following questions : 

a. What part can I play in the Clean Up campaign? 

b. In what way does the beauty of the community 
as a whole depend upon the care which I take 
not to litter the streets and parks wdth paper 
and other refuse? 

c. Why ought I not to deface walls and fences? 

d. Is it possible for my class to cooperate with other 
community agencies during Clean Up week? 

2. Make a Ust of at least five rules for your campaign. 
Let each pupil suggest one rule and give his reasons 

for beUeving that rule of importance. 

The few rules mentioned below may suggest many other 
rules to you. 

Keep the yards clean. 

Take care not to Utter the streets, parks, vacant lots, 
school yards, or alleys with paper, garbage, or other refuse. 

Swat the fly 

Obey anti-spitting laws. 

Campaigns 213 

3. Explain in class one thing that you did to help clean 
up. Be accurate. Give exact names, figures, and locations. 
During your talk you may use photographs taken before 
and after your campaign. 

V. To conduct a crusade against the fly. 

VI. To conduct a campaign for better school play- 

VII. To conduct a campaign for a new school building. 

VIII. To arrange and take part in a Morals and Manners 

IX. To arrange and conduct a drive for the Junior Red 

X. To plan and take part in a campaign for American- 

XI. To arrange and carry on a Victory drive for Better 

Instructions. — 

1. Study carefully the general suggestions for conduct- 
ing a campaign, given in the first part of this chapter. 

2 . Arrange with the teachers of your school to give fifty 
per cent credit to subject matter and fifty per cent credit 
to English, during the week. In each class express every 
answer in a complete sentence. 

3. Write jingles and parodies and make posters contain- 
ing illustrated slogans. The following slogans were writ- 
ten by boys and girls : 

a. Honor thy father and thy mother and thy mother 

b. Good speech is better than fine clothes. 

214 Community English 

c. Be ioo% Americans. Speak English. 

d. The golden key to success — Good EngKsh. 

4. Make tags bearing the words Better Speech Week, 
the date, and the name of your school. Tie a tag upon 
each pupil who makes a mistake in the use of English. 
Collect from the pupil a fine of one cent for each mistake. 
Turn all fines over to the class treasurer to buy a prize for 
the pupil who makes the fewest mistakes during the week. 

5. If you wish, you may provide a Blunder Box instead. 
When you make a blunder in the use of English you must 
write out your mistake with its correction and deposit both 
in the box. 

6. Sometimes it is more convenient to jot down in a 
notebook all the mistakes in English heard during the day. 
During the last fifteen minutes of the afternoon session 
you will be given a chance to read your list and to cor- 
rect the mistakes. Be prepared to give the reasons for 
your corrections. 

7. Arrange for a Better EngHsh composition contest. 

8. Hold a funeral service for Poor English. The grave 
may be made by arranging dictionaries and encyclopedias 
in a hollow square. 

9. Make bad speech bugs. These bugs or imaginary 
animals represent the common mistakes in the use of Eng- 
lish and are labeled haint and becnz and liadnH ought to, 
etc. When such bugs are cut from black and red or yellow 
paper, the effect is startling. Displayed upon the walls of 
the classroom, the bugs will remind you of mistakes to be 

10. Write a httle play or dialogue to aid the Better 
Speech cause. Perhaps the following characters will assist 

Campaigns 215 

you : Mother Tongue, Miss Felling, Mr. English, Miss E. 
Ficiency, Miss Take, and Private Slang. 

II. For the month following Better Speech week, arrange 
to have a reporter in each class who will make a note of 
mistakes in English. Each pupil will act as reporter for 
one recitation period. Be prepared to indicate mistakes 
when it is your turn. 


How would you like to receive a letter like this which the 
great Bishop Phillips Brooks wrote to one of his Httle 
nieces ? 

Little Mistress Josephine, 

Tell me, have you ever seen 

Children half as queer as these 

Babies from across the seas? 

See their funny little fists. 

See the rings upon their wrists ; 

One has very Httle clothes. 

One has jewels in her nose ; 

And they all have silver bangles 

On their little heathen ankles. 

Do you want to know their names? 
One is called Jee Fingee Hames, 
One Buddhanda Arrich Bas, 
One Teehundee Hanki Sas. 

Aren't you glad then, httle Queen, 
That your name is Josephine ? 
That you live in Springfield, or 
Not at least in old Jeypore ? 

Perhaps, you have seen in one of the arithmetic scrap- 
books which Abraham Lincoln kept as a boy, and which is 


Verse-Making 217 

still in existence, the following verse which he wrote under- 
neath one of his tables of weights and measures : 

Abraham Lincoln 
his hand and pen 
he will be good but 
god knows When. 

Although he made mistakes in writing it he did make a 
rhyme. How would you like to write a rhymed letter or a 
verse of in\itation or a new class song? You say you 
" cannot write poetry." Of course not. To write real 
poetry is out of the reach of most of us, but surely we may 
aim to know how to write a verse occasionally. 

To make an illustrated booklet of rhymes for a sick child. 

Suggestions. — 

I . Your class booklet may contain an illustrated rhymed 
alphabet. For example, you might use *' At the Zoo" 
for your title, then the rhymes might be something like 

A is Armadillo, from tail tip to nose 
In armor that's sure to bring terror to foes. 
B are the Beavers who hunger appease 
By nibbling gently the bark from the trees. 

Or for a booklet entitled " Our Class " your verses might 
begin like this : 

A is for Anna — a timid young Miss 

Who says she can never write verses like this. 

2i8 Community English 

B is for Bob — a mischievous elf 

Who vows that he never hid mice on the shelf. 

In this exercise, each pupil may represent one letter of 
the alphabet and write a verse corresponding to his letter, 
or each pupil may try to write a rhyme for each letter of 
the alphabet. As soon as all the pages of verse have been 
read in class and illustrated they may be bound into a 
booklet for the child by a class committee chosen for the 

2. Your booklet may contain an illustrated rhymed 

3. Your booklet may contain verses upon any subject 
in which you are particularly interested : an athletic con- 
test, trees, animals, birds, flowers, daily tasks, or winter 

4. While preparing the illustrated booklet, discuss with 
your teacher and classmates the meaning of each of these : 
verse, rhyme, stanza, and foot. Where can you find the 
meaning and illustration of each word? It may help you 
to note that the word rhythm means " a flowing," the word 
verse means *' a turning," and the word meter means '* a 

5. Read aloud the following verses to see if you can tell 
why the sounds flow so easily from your lips : 

a. The Seal's Lullaby 

Where billow meets billow, there soft be thy pillow ; 
Ah, weary wee flippering, curl at thy ease ! 
The storm shall not wake thee, nor shark overtake thee, 
Asleep in the arms of 'the slow-swinging seas. 

R. Kipling 

Verse-Making 219 

b. The Unseen Playmate 

When children are playing alone on the green, 
In comes the playmate that never was seen. 
When children are happy and lonely and good, 
The Friend of the Children comes out of the wood. 

R. L. Stevenson 

c. O bright flag, O brave flag, O flag to lead the free ! 

The hand of God thy colors blent, 
And heaven to earth thy glory lent. 
To shield the weak, and guide the strong 
To make an end of human wrong, 
And draw a countless human host to follow after thee ! 

H. Van Dyke 

6. If you " beat time " to a verse of poetry and mark 
each accented syllable thus (/) you will find that you have 
emphasized your words like this : 

/ / / / 

He pray/eth best,/ who lov/eth best/ 

/ y / 

All things/ both great/ and small./ 

S. T. Coleridge 

/ r' • • 

I saw/ you toss/ the kites/ on high/ 

And blow/ the birds/ about/ the sky ;/ 

/ / / / 

And all/ around/ I hear/ you pass,/ 

/ / / / 

Like lad/ies' skirts/ across/ the grass./ 

R. L. Stevenson 

7. Read aloud the following verses and mark the syllables 
you emphasize : 

Go down to Kew in lilac-time, in lilac-time, in lilac-time ; 
Go down to Kew in lilac-time (it't far from London !) 

220 Community English 

And you shall wander hand in hand with love in summer's 
wonderland ; 
Go down to Kew in lilac-time (it isn't far from London !) 

Alfred Noyes 

Home they brought her warrior dead ; 

She nor swooned nor uttered cry. 
All her maidens, watching, said, 

''She must weep or she will die." 

Alfred, Lord Tennyson 

Tell you what I like the best — 
'Long about knee-deep in June, 
'Bout the time strawberries melts 
On the vine, — some afternoon 
Like to jes' git out and rest, 
And not work at nothin' else ! 

James Whitcomb Riley 

Ye who beHeve in affection that hopes, and endures, and is 

Ye who believe in the beauty and strength of woman's devotion, 
List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the 

forest ; 
List to a Tale of Love in Acadie, home of the happy. 

H. W. Longfellow 

As I drew in my head, and was turning around, 
Down the chimney St. Nicholas came with a bound. 
He was dressed all in fur from his head to his foot, 
And his clothes were all tarnished with ashes and soot. 

Clement C. Moore 

Then the little Hiawatha 
Learned of every bird its language, 
Learned their names and all their secrets, 
How they built their nests in summer. 

Verse-Making 221 

Where they hid themselves in winter, 
Talked with them whene'er he met them, 
Called them ''Hiawatha's Chickens." 

Henry W. Longfellow 

For the angel of Death spread his wings on the blast. 

And breathed in the face of the foe as he passed. 


8. Are any of the preceding stanzas alike in the way they 

flow along; that is, are they alike in their rhythm? How 

many different kinds of verses are illustrated above? 

Bring to class a poem from a current magazine or newspaper 

in which the rhythm is like any one of these. 


I. To compose short, simple rhymes for one of the following: 
birthday greeting cords, Easter cards, Christinas cards, New 
Year's greetings, rhymes for Valentine Day, or verses to be 
sent with May-baskets. 

II. To compose simple verses for special occasions: any 
class celebration, a school festival. Memorial Day, Washing- 
ton's Birthday, Flag Day, Fourth of July, or Labor Day. 

III. To write a rhymed letter to a friend. 

IV. To put one of yEsop's fables into verse. 

V. To write verses for an illustrated calendar. 

VI. To write verses descriptive of some athletic contest. 

VII. To write verses of invitation to the pupils of another 
class. Ask them to attend a class debate, a picftic, a straw 

VIII. To make an illustrated booklet for a sick classmate. 

IX. To write verses to be used in a book of " snapshots.'' 

X. To write a class or school song. 

222 Community English 

Instructions. — 

1. Use the music of some popular song or the words of 
one of your favorite short poems as a model. 

2. Do not try to write a long song. Two or three stanzas 
are enough. 

3. Your verses may be humorous or serious, as you wish. 

4. Remember that every line of verse begins with a 
capital letter. Write neatly, punctuate correctly, and give 
your song a title. 


A DIARY is not unlike a little letter to yourself, jotted 
down in a book at the end of each day. For a diary is a 
record of daily events. What you do, what you see, what 
you think, what you feel, — any or all of these things may 
be written in your diary. Some people write in their diaries 
mostly about the weather, but there are many other in- 
teresting subjects to write about. If you have never seen 
a Httle record book or diary you will be helped in this 
Undertaking by asking to see one at any book store. Some 
pupils about your own age have greatly enjoyed pretending 
that they were birds, dogs, horses, and flowers, so that they 
might keep the diary of something other than themselves. 
For example, one eighth grade girl wrote the following 
entry in Mrs. Robin's diary : 

June 20, 192 1 

I arose early this morning to find worms. I had fairly good 
luck but the children were so hungry and their mouths were 
open so wide that I almost despaired of filling them. I found 
a few ripe cherries in Farmer Jones's garden but some curious, 
flapping white rags startled me a good deal. Mr. Robin's 
voice seems to be improving. His song this evening was very 
sweet and clear and I think that it helped lull the babies to 
sleep. Three times since I went to bed, however, I have had 
to get up and sing to them myself, ''Cheep, cheep, go to 
sleep." I hope that to-morrow will be a restful day. 


224 Community English 

To keep a record in a diary. 
Instructions. — 

1. Imagine that you are a pupil in some foreign coun- 
try. In a diary, keep a record of the five most interesting 
days of last summer. You may choose any five days — 
vacation days, school days, Sundays, holidays, or work 

2. Consult your geography, the encyclopedia, or any 
other book of reference, to find out about the daily life of 
the boy or girl you have chosen to impersonate. 

3. As you jot down the record of each day, show why the 
day was a little different from any other day in your life. 

4. Date the entry. Give month, day, and year. 

5. Be careful to abbreviate and punctuate correctly. 
Do not omit the subjects of sentences. Use the most in- 
teresting words you can think of, to describe the events 
of the day. Make pencil sketches, or cut pictures from 
old magazines or books to illustrate your diary. 

6. Use any of the suggestions given below that you wish, 
in writing your entries. Describe 

a. The appearance of your home — outside or inside 
h. Your clothes 

c. Your games 

d. Your playmates or playground 

e. Your work 

/. Your school — building or studies 
g. The streets of your town 

h. In fact, mention any item of information which 
might interest an American boy or girl. 

Diaries 225 

7. The following list is merely suggestive but you may 
choose any subject mentioned here : 

Imagine yourself to be a boy or girl from Japan 

A French or Spanish boy or girl 

A boy from any country in South America 

A boy from South Africa or a girl from Northern Africa 

A girl from Korea 

A Chinese school boy 

A school pupil in the Panama Canal Zone 

A boy whose home is in the Alps 

A Russian school girl 

A pupil in Norway or Sweden 

8. You may imagine that your home is in any of the 
following places : 

The British Isles Porto Rico 

Eskimo Land Holland 

Australia Mexico 

Belgium Turkey 

Italy Cuba 


I. To keep a travel diary for one week. 

Suggestions. — Imagine that you are taking a trip 
through any foreign country. Write down for each day 
an interesting account of your experiences. 

II. To keep a diary for your favorite animaL 

Suggestions. — Imagine that you are a bird. Keep a 
diary for one week. Mention any or all of the following 
topics in your daily entries : 

226 Community English 

Nest or home 


Care of young 





///. To keep a diary. 

Suggestions. — Imagine that for one week you are your 
favorite historical character. In your diary, record events 
of greatest interest to you. Instead of the words historical 
character in the above suggestion you may substitute one 
oi the following : hero, poet, author, artist. 


When the Pilgrims came to America to establish a republic 
of ideas they may be said to have considered the printing 
press a far more formidable weapon than their old bell- 
mouthed fowHng pieces. In 1638 the first press was 
brought over and set up at Harvard College. Two years 
later the Bay Psalm Book was published. To-day there 
are mechanisms of many kinds for the rapid printing of the 
smallest label or the largest sheet in black or many colors ; 
machines for folding, sewing, and binding books, as well 
as the arts of stereotype, electrotype, and photo-engraving. 
The total yearly circulation of periodicals of all classes, 
including daily papers, is more than 14,041,921,066 copies. 
The idea of the Pilgrims has been gloriously vindicated. 

Have you ever seen a paper or magazine published by 
boys and girls? What type of paper was it? What 
features did it contain? Why would you enjoy helping 
edit such a school paper ? Find out if you can, whether the 
papers issued by other schools are printed upon school 
printing presses or are pubKshed in some other way. De- 
bate informally one of the following questions : The English 
-work of this school mil he helped by a school printing press, 
or, The best work in written composition should be published 
in a school magazine. 

228 Community English 


To help publish a school paper or magazine. 

Suggestions. — Several methods for publishing a school 
paper are suggested here. Read the suggestions carefully 
but do not let these hints limit you in your Undertaking. 

1. Talk over with your teacher and classmates the 
possibility of publishing a class newspaper or magazine. 

2. Select a name for your paper. 

3. Write letters to other schools, asking for copies of 
their school or class papers. 

4. Vote upon one of the following ways of publishing 
your paper : 

a. PubHsh it once a month by having it read aloud 
in class. Each reporter reads his own contribu- 

b. Publish it by having the copies mimeographed. 

c. Publish it as a magazine, two or three times a 
year. Perhaps you can obtain money enough 
from subscriptions and advertisements to have a 
Christmas and a Commencement number printed 
and illustrated. 

5. Choose an editor-in-chief and several assistant 
editors. This board of editors will collect the material and 
arrange it. 

6. Choose a business manager. If the paper is to be 
printed, he will have charge of subscriptions and advertising. 

7. With the two or three other pupils in your group, be 
ready to act as reporter for some one department. 

The Class Publication 229 

8. Choose which of these departments you wish to 
work for. After discussion by the teacher and the class, 
any department Hsted here may be omitted : 

a. School News 

This department takes care of personal items, 
morning exercises, speakers, lectures, and 
parents' meetings. 

b. Stories 

c. Poems 

d. Editorials 

e. Chppings 
/. Reports 

This department deals with all reports of trips, ex- 
cursions, visits to industrial plants, offices, etc. 
g. Jokes 

For this department no extra credit is given. 
Every pupil in the class may send in material 
if he wishes. 
h. Sports or Athletics 
i. Articles contributed by the Faculty 
j. Alumni News 

9. Arrange a trip of inspection to some printing plant 
near your school. Do not go unless arrangements for the 
trip have been made with some official of the company. 
Be sure that your teacher accompanies you on the trip. 

10. After all the material for a given number of the paper 
has been handed to the editor-in-chief, he will return 
portions of it to you and your classmates for correction. 
Upon the back of the paper, note all mistakes in spelling, 
grammar, capitalization, punctuation, paragraphing. 

230 Community English 

11. Return the paper to the editor who will give it to 
your teacher for final revision. 

12. Drawings or photographs, intended for illustration, 
should be handed in on separate sheets of paper. 

Writing news items. — When writing news items you may 
find it helpful to ask yourself the following questions as 
you write the story : 

What happened ? 
To whom did it happen? 
When did it happen ? 
Where did it happen? 
Why did it happen? 
How did it happen? 

Perhaps, you will find it less difficult to remember thi^ 
proper questions if you memorize this verse of KipHng's. 

I keep six honest serving men 

(They taught me all I know) 

Their names are What, and Why, and When, 

And How, and Where, and Who. 

Preparation of manuscript. — Prepare your manuscript 
for the editor in this way : 

1. Use unruled white paper. 

2. Write on one side only of the paper. 

3. Leave a margin at the left of the page. 

4. Indent the first line of each paragraph. 

5. Spell correctly. 

6. Number the pages in consecutive order. 

7. Do not crowd the words on a page. 

8. Use clear, simple, vivid words. 

The Class Publication 231 

9. Place the title about two inches from the top and 
about one inch above the first line of your story. 

10. Typewrite your work, if you can. 

11. Black ink should be used for handwriting. 

12. Hand in all manuscript //a/. Do not fold or roll it. 
Correction of proof. — If your paper is to be printed, the 

printer will return to you proof for correction. The follow- 
ing hints may make your work of revision more workman- 
like in appearance. 
•I. Make corrections in ink. 

2. Make corrections in the margin — never between the 

3. Use these proof reader's marks : 

^ = New paragraph, 
A = Insert (put in whatever has been omitted), 

8 = Omit, 
sp. = Spelling, 
I ]__ = Change the order of the sentence, example, 
Fred's book | there [js. 
cap. = Capital letter, 
/. c. = Lower case, 
/^ = Comma, 
^y = Apostrophe, 
V ^ = Quotation marks, 
No 1[ = No paragraph, 
O = Period, 
Qy. = \?> this correct? 

Specimen News Stories. — Read over the following news 
stories to see if each answers the questions : What ? When ? 
Where? Why? How? 


Community English 



Guide Averts Panic — Men 

from Maid of Mist 

Recover Bodies 


NIAGARA FALLS, N. Y., Sept. 6— 
Three persons were killed and two injured 
this afternoon when a slide of shale rock 
forced out the fourth bridge leading to the 
old Biddle stairway at the cave of the 
winds, on Goat island. 

The dead are : A. Hartman of Brook- 
lyn, Louise Hartman, his wife, and Clara 
M. Faust of Pittsburgh. 

Two Seriously Injured 

T. W. Lee of Pittsburgh and Frank R. 
Haehling of Detroit are at a local hospital, 

where they are suffering from serious 

The dead and injured were members 
of a party of tourists and were just com- 
pleting the circuit of the four bridges in 
the cave when the slide began. Mr. and 
Mrs. Hartman were in the middle of the 
bridge ; Rufus Robinson, a guide, was 
leading the way up the stairway, followed 
closely by Haehling and his wife and Lee. 
Miss Faust had hold of one of Lee's hands. 
Mrs. Haehling was uninjured, but suffered 
from shock. 

The noise of the falling rock was drowned 
by the roar of the cataract, and the first 
intimation that Robinson had of the acci- 
dent was when Lee cried out as Miss Faust 
was torn from his grasp by the falling 
rock. Mr. and Mrs. Hartman were al- 
most buried by the rock and dirt. 

Another group of tourists, led by Edward 
Perry, a guide, stood terrified as they saw 
the slide force out the bridge. For a 
moment panic reigned, but Perry com- 
manded the tourists to retrace their steps 
over the way they had come, and they were 
brought safely around the circuit to t'he 
main stairway and up from the cave. 

The bodies of the dead were recovered 
by men from the steamer Maid of the Mist, 
who made their way in a row boat into 
the back of the falls. The bodies were 
carried to the landing on the American side. 

The Class Publication 



Missing Polish Lad Waves Flag to Keep Up 

His Lagging Courage as Wintry 

Blasts Chill Him 

Little Steve was lost — hopelessly lost 
in Bellingham square, Chelsea. Trolley 
cars clanged by, automobiles honked, and 
grown-up persons hurried along with 
hardly a glance at the boy who stood alone 
near the curb. 

Steve was lost but he didn't seem to 
care. He had his flag, which he waved 
at intervals to keep up his lagging cour- 
age. The flag, with the stripes some- 
what soiled, was as large as Steve, but 
when the wind swept around the corner 
and attempted to wrest it from his grasp, 
he clung to it valiantly. 

The tot's face was blue with cold and 
he had no cap to cover his yellow thatched 
head. His blue suit was of little protec- 
tion against the chill blasts. Steve was 
as true blue as his blue eyes for he whim- 
pered not ; he just stood there on the 
corner and waved his ilag. 

Takes Waif to Station 

When a large man in a blue uniform 
with brass buttons came along and stopped 
beside him, Steve just looked at him in- 
quiringly, and even when the large man 
asked him his name and where he lived he 
waved the flag. 

He was not surprised when the blue- 
coated person picked him up in his arms 
and carried him down the street. Then 
passers-by stopped to look, for the tot's 
face was wreathed with smiles and the 
flas waved vigorously. 

When OflBcer Bradley reached the po- 
lice station with his find he deposited 

him in a nice, big chair near a radiator 
and then purchased a large, red apple 
at a nearby stand. 

"Keep him from squalling," he ex- 
plained, somewhat sheepishly. Steve 
munched the apple with evident appro- 
bation and made friends with all the 
policemen who came in from their beats. 

"Best kid we ever saw," was the opinion 
of all. At one time Steve started to fill 
up with tears, but he choked back his sobs 
and took another bite of the apple. 

Then his mother appeared at the sta- 
tion. Alas, little Steve, the brave, showed 
that he was just a very small boy, indeed, 
and that he had been just dying for 
mother's arms and mother's words. He 
burst into tears, and truth be it, howled 
miserably when his mother lifted him to 
her bosom. 

Steve "Some Patriot" 

The lad is Stephen Krovalski. He is 2 
years old and lives at 140 Poplar street. 
Ever since Armistice day, when he saw 
the .soldiers parade, he has insisted on 
having "old glory" with him all the time. 

Mrs. Krovalski was busy in the rear 
of the house yesterday and Steve was 
marching up and down on the front side- 
walk. In his enthusiasm he marched too 
far from home and lost his way. 

Steve is of Polish descent, but he has 
proven already that he will make a good 
American citizen. As one policeman said, 
"He is sure some patriot." 

234 Community English 


I*atsi/\s Home Again; 
Blind Owner Happy 
To Regain Her 'Eyes ^ 

LYNN. — "Patsy" is home again, and 
blind Mrs. Olive Ingraham, 70, and help- 
less without him, is happy again. 

Patsy is just a wee bit ashamed and 
repentant, but he's forgiven for playing 

Maybe it was just plain wanderlust — 
maybe the scent of a particularly luscious 
bone some other carefree pup was taking 
home — but the fact remained that Patsy 
forgot he was charged with being the 
"eyes" of his blinded owner. So he broke 
his leash and ran away. 

When Lynn school children heard of 
his defection, they instituted a 12,000 
boy-and-girl search for Patsy. Finally the 
stray was found tied in the home of a 
tender-hearted youngster who had found 
him shivering in the streets. 

But Patsy's home again and all's well. 



The average American is lip-lazy. Thousands of us speak 
back of our teeth, or through our noses, or behind our lips. We 
do not open our mouths when we speak ; or if we do we yell or 
scream. A well-modulated voice is the exception; clear 
enunciation is exceeding rare. 

I was very forcibly impressed with this fact at the Americani- 
zation Conference held in Washington last spring. Here was 
gathered a company largely made up of pedagogues; of men 
and women high in positions of public instruction or education, 
who, in their places, were recognized as authorities in teaching ; 

The Class Publication 235 

whom their communities had raised to positions where what they 
said counted for much in the direction of pubhc training. Yet 
one could only in the exceptional instance understand what 
was said. During the four days of the conference I heard over 
one hundred persons speak from the platform and the floor. 
Of all these speakers only eight, by actual count, opened their 
lips and clearly enunciated their words. In a number of in- 
stances the speakers could not be understood within twenty feet 
of where they were speaking. The majority could not be heard 
at the back of the small auditorium. 

Note in any gathering in which you find yourself within the 
next few days, pubhc or private, and watch how many persons 
open their lips and speak distinctly, and the result will be sur- 
prising and humiliating. 

"I do not expect ever to speak in pubhc. Why trouble?'* 
is a favorite argument in defense of lip-laziness. But it is not 
a question of whether one is destined to speak in pubhc or not. 
How often do we find ourselves in a position where something 
that we know or have to tell — some experience — is of interest 
to a home company or to a small group. Those of us who teach 
in classroom or in Sunday school, or who speak in small meet- 
ings of club, guild or what not, who appear in plays or enter- 
tainments, or whose vocations in life depend on the use of the 
voice in explaining or selling — the necessity for clear speech 
is vital to thousands. In business matters it is almost indis- 
pensable to man or woman. No matter how thoroughly con- 
versant we may be with a subject, if the capacity is not there 
to express that knowledge clearly, if the proper use of the lips 
or the voice is foreign to us, we are placed at a decided disad- 
vantage. A clear enunciation, a knowledge of the emphasis 
on the right words, the capacity to make the lips express what 
the mind knows, are absolutely vital and may mean the differ- 
ence between getting our message "over" or not. 

236 Community English 

Our children should be taught, not alone to learn the English 
language, but also how to speak it. There is no earthly reason 
why the American should go on with his present slovenly method 
of speech — his hp-laziness. One can learn to speak distinctly 
as easily as one drifts into speaking unintelligibly. 

There are some things in our American life that we should not 
carry on, and one of them is our universal habit of lip-laziness. 


I. To make adequate use of the school printing press. 

Suggestions. — When making arrangements for the 
publication of a school paper, you discussed the benefits 
resulting from a school printing press. If your school 
already has such a press, you will find this Undertaking 
very interesting. 

I . The products of the school printing press include the 
following : 

Spelling lists for various grades 


Entertainment literature (including programs, notices, 

and tickets) 
Outlines for class use 
School songs 
Memory gems 
Report cards 
Best work in English 
School paper 

The entire responsibility for getting out the paper — 
the composition, typing, proof reading, printing, 
and binding — rests with the pupils of your class. 

238 Community English 

2. Study the directions for correcting proof found in the 
preceding Undertaking. When it is your turn to set up 
proof, aim to make as few mistakes as possible. Pay 
especial attention to spelling, paragraphing, punctuation, 
capitalization, and spacing. 

3. Once a week the recitation may be set up in type. 
A different group of pupils from your class will prepare each 
exercise. The group will pull proof for the entire class ; 
each pupil is given one proof to read and correct. 

4. The following composition subjects will prove of 
unusual interest if you have time to investigate them : 

The Invention of Printing by Gutenberg 
Cuneiform Writing of the Assyrians 
Hieroglyphic Writing of the Egyptians 
A Study of Bookbinding 
The Manufacture of Paper 

For Paper you may substitute any other material 

used in the school print shop. 
The Value of Illustration in Printing 

5. In all your work with the printing press you should 
remember that you must have ideas to express before your 
work can be worth any effort. Nevertheless, the form in 
which you express your ideas is very important if you are 
to do skillful work. Work must be careful and accurate or 
it is a failure. 

6. Letters may be written to the head of a printing shop 
in your city, asking him to give a talk to your class on 
'' Printing." Each member of the class will write a letter 
and the best letter will be sent. 

7. If possible, obtain lantern shdes showing the '' History 

The Class Publication 239 

of Printing " and '' The Making of a Magazine." Such 
slides are frequently suppHed to schools by the state depart- 
ment of education. 

8. Requests for information about the use of the school 
printing press may be addressed to the American Type 
Founders Company (Education Department), 300 Com- 
munipaw Avenue, Jersey City, New Jersey. 


How many times in your life have you said, " I wish I 
had something good to read"? By good you probably 
meant something which would prove interesting to you. 
So in order that you may be helped in your selection of 
" something good to read " this Undertaking has been 
suggested. Several of the literary masterpieces mentioned 
have been analyzed in some detail but many others have 
been merely named. Probably, you will not care to read 
even one half the books and poems suggested, but if the 
Hst given here is posted both in the school and in the pubHc 
library, you will enjoy choosing some of the stories to read 
and talk over at home and at school. Stories of adventure 
and romance and tales of heroism and daring, and travel 
and exploration await you. Which will you choose first? 


To study one or more of the following literary master- 
pieces: Evangeline, Rip Van Winkle, The Courtship of Miles 
Standish, or The Lady of the Lake. 

Instructions. — Instructions will be given here which 
will apply to the study of any literary masterpiece. After 
these general instructions you will find special suggestions 
for the study of each particular masterpiece suggested. 


The Study of a Literary Masterpiece 241 

1. Read the story through rapidly. Your teacher will 
set the time Hmit in which you are to complete your reading. 

2. As soon as you have finished your reading, discuss the 
story in class. State three reasons why you did or did not 
enjoy it. 

3. Arrange, if possible, to have a motion picture of the 
story shown at school or in a local theater. Excellent films 
of many of these masterpieces have been made and man- 
agers are usually glad to present them if requested to 
do so by schools. Accompanied by their teachers, classes 
often attend such performances in a body. 

4. Dramatize in class the most important scenes in the 
story. Do not attempt to memorize the lines but with the 
book in one hand, try to bring out the author's meaning by 
means of facial expression, voice, and gesture. 

5. Make an outhne of the story for your notebook 
following this general order : 

a. Name of story 
h. Author's name 

His nationality 

Time of his birth and death 

c. Setting of the story 

When and where the action takes place 

d. Important characters 

e. Source of the story 

/. Most important scenes in the story 
g. Main idea of the story 

Study of Evangeline. — As you read this beautiful story 
of love, try to find out: Who was arrested? Was any one 
sent to jail or was a more terrible punishment imposed? 

242 Community English 

Why were all the houses burned ? What killed Evangeline's 
father? How did the long search end? 

1. Follow the general directions for the study of a 
literary masterpiece. 

2. Make a list of the new words — not proper nouns — 
which the study of this poem has added to your vocabulary. 
Record this hst in your notebook and try to use at least 
two of these words every day for a week. 

3. Select four figures of speech which you think add 
to the beauty of the poem. 

4. What is the meaning of each of the following words ? 
Look them up if you do not already know. 








Sunshine of Saint Eulalie 





5. Describe one of the following : 

a. The home of Benedict Bellefontaine, stating some 
reasons for his happiness and showing how his 
happiness was destroyed. 

b. The village of Grand-Pre, giving an account of 
the life and customs of its inhabitants. 

c. The Feast of Betrothal. 

d. Evening on the Beach. 

e. The Burial of Benedict. 

/. The Prairie Home of Basil in Louisiana, 
g. The Ozark Foothills. 

The Study of a Literary Masterpiece 243 

6. Locate on the map : 

Nova Scotia Atchafalaya River 

Gaspereau River Adayes 

Gulf of Minas Wachita River 

Grand-Pre Natchitoches 

7. Memorize one of the following : 

a. Father Felician's speech in the church, Hnes 466- 

482, Part I. 
h. Evangeline on the prairie, lines 102 7-1059, 


8. Write all the correspondence necessary in connection 
with a trip to the home of Evangeline. See special instruc- 
tions in the beginning of this book, Part I. 

9. Discuss the following questions : 

If you had been in Evangeline's place what would 

you have done? 
What was the meaning of the robber-bird story? 
What led to the driving out of the Acadians? 
Is this poem historically true? 
What is the key-note or theme of the poem? It is 

stated in the prologue. Try to find it. 
Why do you think Longfellow liked Evangeline best 

of all his poems? 
On what two occasions did Michael the fiddler play 

for the pleasure of the Acadians? Describe one 

of these occasions. 
What was the effect upon Evangeline of the stories 

told her by the Shawnee woman ? 
Why did EvangeHne remain so long at the mission? 
What lesson did her Hfe of sorrow and trial teach her ? 

244 Community English 

Henry W. Longfellow has been the most popular of 
all our American poets. Can you give any 
reasons for this? 

lo. Imagine yourself to be one of the following : 
a. Father Leblanc 

Tell the story of the necklace and its recovery. 
h. The Commander of the English Soldiers 

Address the Acadians, declaring them prisoners. 

c. Gabriel 

Tell the Black Robe chief at the Mission of your 
separation from Evangehne and of your search 
for her. 

d. Evangeline 

In after years tell of your happy childhood in 

e. An Attendant Nurse 

Tell of Evangeline's work among the sick of 
Philadelphia and of her meeting with Gabriel. 

Study of Rip Van Winkle. — 

1. Read the story through rapidly. 

2. Follow the general directions for the study of a 

3. Pick out from this story fifteen vividly descriptive 

4. What is the meaning of each of the following allusions ? 
Diedrick Knickerbocker Stony Point 

Woden Anthony's Nose 

Waterloo Medal Hendrick Hudson 

Queen Anne's Farthing Frederick der Rothbart 

Peter Stuyvesant Babylonish jargon 

The Study of a Literary Masterpiece 245 

Answer the following questions : 

In what way did the houses in Grand-Pre differ from 
the Dutch houses in this story? 

Why was Rip a favorite with the women of the neigh- 
borhood ? 

Why did children like him ? 

What is the significance of the fact that dogs never 
barked at him? 

What were Rip's favorite pastimes? 

What was Rip's chief characteristic? 

How were the " odd-looking personages playing at 
ninepins " dressed? 

What was the significance of the changed sign at the 

What was Rip's attitude toward his new ruler, 
Washington ? 

Why was Irving one of the most important of Ameri- 
can writers? What name is frequently given to 

Imagine yourself to be one of the following : 

a. Rip Van Winkle 

Tell why it was useless to work your farm. 

Describe your view from the Knoll in the Kaat- 

Describe your feeling when you awakened from 
your long sleep. 

Give an account of your reception as you ap- 
proached the village. 

b. Wolf 

State your opinion of Dame Van Winkle. 

246 Community English 

c, Nicholas Vedder 

Describe the events of any afternoon when Dame 
Van Winkle appeared. 

d, Dame Van Winkle 

Give an account of your trials with your shiftless 

e, A Tavern Politician 

Describe the sensation caused by the appearance 
of Rip followed by an " army of women and 
/. Judith Gardenier 

Give an account of the reunion with your father 
and of his return to your home. 

7. Imagine that you have been asleep for twenty years 
and have just awakened. Describe several of the great 
changes that have occurred in the United States in the past 
twenty years. 

Study of The Courtship of Miles Standish. — 

1. Read the story through rapidly. 

2. Follow the general instructions given for the study of 
a literary masterpiece. 

3. Dramatize several of the more important scenes. 
Do not attempt to memorize the lines. 

4. Answer the following questions : 

In what way does The Courtship of Miles Standish 
give a good picture of conditions in the Plymouth 
Colony ? 

Why are the references to the Bible of special impor- 
tance ? 

Is this story true or fictitious? 

The Study of a Literary Masterpiece 247 

What is the difference between rhyme and rhythm? 

Give illustrations from this poem. 
When did " friendship prevail over love "? 
What was the story of " Bertha, the spinner ''? 

5. Contrast the conclusion of this story with the con- 
clusion of Evangeline. Contrast John Alden and Miles 
Standish in regard to personal appearance. Contrast or 
compare Priscilla and Evangeline. Contrast life in Grand- 
Pre with life in the Plymouth Colony. 

6. Describe one of the following: 

a. The letter-writing scene between Miles Standish 
and John Alden, Part I. 

b. The scene in which John gives Priscilla's message 
to Miles Standish. 

c. The interview between John and Priscilla imme- 
diately after the departure of the Mayflower. 

d. The house built by John Alden. 

The descendants of John and Priscilla still live in 
the old homestead built on the site of this first 

e. Give an account of the scene at Priscilla's house 
when word is brought of Miles Standish's death. 

/. Describe the effect produced by Standish's return. 

7. Imagine yourself to be one of the following : 

a. Priscilla. Write a letter to a friend giving an 
account of John's wooing for Miles Standish. 

b. John Alden. Give a report to Miles Standish of 
your interview with Priscilla. 

c. Miles Standish. Describe the meeting of the 
council to decide on peace or war. 

248 Community English 

d, Hobomok. Give an account of the meeting of 
Miles Standish with Wattawamat and Pecksuot. 

e. The Captain of the Mayflower. Give an account 
of the events just prior to the saihng of your boat. 

8. Explain the meaning of the itahcized words in the 
following : 

a. This is the sword of Damascus I fought with in 

h. Truly the maxim is good, and I do not mean to 

gainsay it. 

c. As in a floundering ship, with every roll of the 

Washes the hitter sea. 

d. Gayly, with joyous laugh, Priscilla mounted her 

" Nothing is wanting now," he said with a smile, 
" but the distaff.'' 

e. Like a picture it seemed of the primitive, pastoral 

/. Straightway the captain paused, and without 

further question or parley, 
Took from the nail on the wall his sword with its 

scabbard of iron. 
g. I have fought ten battles and sacked and demolished 

a city. 
h. Meanwhile the choleric captain strode wrathful 

away to the council. 

Q. Explain the circumstances under which the following 
was uttered : 

The Study of a Literary Masterpiece 249 

Let not him that putteth his hand to the plough look backwards ; 
Though the ploughshare cut through the flowers of life to its 

Though it pass o'er the graves of the dead and the hearths of 

the living, 
It is the will of the Lord ; and his mercy endureth forever ! 

Study of The Lady of the Lake. — 

1 . This is a charming story of a king in disguise and of 
his acquaintance with Ellen, daughter of the banished 
Douglas. Read each canto through for its story and dis- 
cuss the events of the canto in class. Re-read the impor- 
tant sections of each canto and study in detail. 

2. Arrange for some person in your community to give 
an illustrated talk to your class about the Trosachs. The 
Trosachs is the general term for the country about Loch 
Katrine. Choose one of your classmates to introduce the 
speaker, and invite other English classes to be your guests. 

3. Make a collection of photographs, post cards, and 
magazine illustrations of the Trosachs. Display these 
pictures in your classroom. 

4. Draw upon the blackboard an enlarged map of the 
Highlands of Western Perthshire, between Sterling Castle 
and Loch Lomond. 

5. Locate upon this map, places mentioned in the story. 

6. Pay special attention to the following descriptions: 

The Glen at Sunset, Canto I 

Ellen Douglas, Canto I 

The Preparation of the Fiery Cross, Canto III 

The Parting of Roderick Dhu and James Fitz- James 

The Sports at SterHng, Canto V 

250 Community English 

7. Upon the blackboard make a list of descriptive 
pictures that might form a series of paintings. Under 
each heading, make a list of the details which go to make up 
the picture. 

8. No two of the songs are alike. By what means does 
the author carry out the feeUng of the singer? 

9. Memorize your favorite selection of not less than 
twenty lines. 

10. Dramatize important scenes. 

11. The motion picture of this story is especially worth 
seeing. Arrange for its production in your city, if possible. 

1 2 . Describe and characterize the most important persons 
in this story. Make illustrated posters of them, if you wish. 

13. Debate informally these questions: 

Resolved: That Roderick Dhu was a more worthy 

suitor for the hand of Ellen than was Malcolm 


Resolved : The Lady of the Lake is a more interesting 

story than is Evangeline. 

14. Lines 741 ff.. Stanza 27, Canto VI are considered the 
most beautiful simile in the poem. Give your reasons for 
believing that this is or is not true. Select from the poem 
four other figures of speech. 

15. Contrast the opening and the closing stanzas of this 

16. Write a report in outline form for a biographical 
sketch of the life of Sir Walter Scott. 

17. Make an outline of the poem. Be sure that you do 
not leave out any important detail but do not include 
unimportant material. 

The Study of a Literary Masterpiece 251 

18. Answer the following questions: 

Why was the author willing to sell this masterpiece 

for about ten dollars, in our money? 
Who is the hero of the poem? 
What was the significance of Ellen's Snood? 
Ellen and Roderick were own cousins. Could they 

have been legally raarried? 
Is the Douglas of this poem a historical character or 

a fictitious one? 
Which was the more beautiful, Ellen or Evangeline ? 

Defend your opinion. 
How long a time does each canto represent ? 
What proofs did Fitz- James have that Ellen was a 

chieftain's daughter in Canto I? 
How did Ellen secure the respect of the soldiers at 


19. You may use the following suggestions for your work 
in oral and written composition : 

The Adventures of a Hunter. 

Give an account of the day of the chase up to the 
time of the meeting of Fitz- James and Ellen. 

A Highland Welcome. 

Let James V describe his first visit to the island 
retreat of Douglas. 

Omens of Evil. 

Give an account of the falling of the sword when 
Fitz-James entered Roderick's home and of the 
disturbing dreams that came to the guest. 

The Fatal Symbol. 

252 Community English 

Describe the gathering of the clan, showing how 
the fiery cross interrupted a wedding and a 
A BHghted Life. 

Relate the story of Blanche of Devan's life and 
show how she was avenged. 

Malcolm's Encounter with Roderick. 

Describe the circumstances that led to the combat 
between Malcolm and Roderick. 

The Taghairm. 

Describe the augury practiced by Brian to discover what 
would be the outcome of the war. Show how the proph- 
ecy made by him was fulfilled. 

The Goblin Cave. 

Describe the hiding place of Ellen and Douglas and 
explain in detail why they were there. 

A Worthy Foe. 

Relate instances that show Roderick's generosity to 
Malcolm Graeme and to James Fitz -James. 

The Story of the King's Signet Ring. 

Explain the circumstances under which Fitz- James gave 
Ellen the ring and show how it fulfilled its mission. 

At Coilantogle's Ford. 

Describe the combat between Fitz- James and Roderick 

An Outlawed Earl. 

Let Ellen tell the story of the adventures of Douglas. 

The Battle of Beal' an Duine. 

Give an account of the battle between Clan-Alpine and 
the Saxon forces as described by Allan Bane. 

The Study of a Literary Masterpiece 253 

The Victor of the Day. 

Let Douglas describe to Ellen his arrival at Sterling 

Castle and the part he took in the sports. 
A Tale of Loyalty. 

Let King James tell of the loyalty to Douglas shown by 

the people on the day of the burghers' sports, and of 

Douglas's loyalty to him. 
A Monarch's Generosity. 

Let Ellen describe the scene in the presence chamber when 

King James pardoned Douglas and Malcolm Graeme. 




Grade VII 

-4. Titles from which selection for class work may be made. 

1. Longfellow: The Skeleton in Armor, The Wreck of the Hesperus, 

Excelsior, The Arsenal at Springfield, The Bridge, The Day is Done, 
Walter von der Vogelweid, The Old Clock on the Stairs, The Arrow 
and the Song, The Biiilding of the Ship, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, 
Pegasus in Pound, The Phantom Ship, The Emperor's Bird's Nest, 
Santa Filomena, Daybreak, Sandal phon. Maiden and Weathercock, 
The Three Kings, The Leap of Roushan Beg. 

2. Whittier : The Vaudois Teacher, Cassandra Southwick, The Shoe- 

makers, The Fishermen, The Huskers, The Angels of Biiena Vista, 
The Lakeside, The Poor Voter on Election Day, Maud Muller, The 
Barefoot Boy, Skipper Ireson's Ride, The Pipes at Lucknow, Telling 
the Bees, The Cable Hymn, My Playmate, Barbara Frietchie, Adam 
Davenport, The Three Bells, In School Days, Marguerite, The Trail- 
ing Arbutus, Our Autocrat, The Poet and the Children. 

3. Longfellow: Miles Standish; Evangeline. 

4. Arabian Nights (expurgated selections). 

5. The Seven Champions of Christendom (an Elizabethan prose romance of 

chivalry and necromancy). 

6. Hawthorne : The Great Stone Face. 

7. Irving: Rip Van Winkle; The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. 

8. Lamb : Tales from Shakespeare. 

9. Kipling: The Jungle Books (The Mowgli Stories especially). 

10. Stevenson : Treasure Island. 

11. Stevens and Allen : Stories of King Arthur. 

12. Myths, classic and northern. For this reading the following texts 

are suggested : Baldwin, Hero Tales Told in School, The Golden 
Fleece, The Story of Siegfried, The Story of Roland, Stories of the 
King; Baker, Stories of Old Greece and Rome, Stories from the 

Books for Study and General Reading 255 

Old Norse Myths; Hutchinson, The Golden Porch {A Book of 
Greek Fairy Tales), The Sunset of the Heroes {Last Adventures of 
the Takers of Troy), Orpheus with His Lute {Stories of the World's 
Springtime) ; Mabie, Norse Stories, Retold from the Eddas. 
B. Titles from which selections for individual reading may be made. 

1. Alcott: Little Women, Little Men, Jo's Boys, Eight Cousins, Rose in 


2. Brown : Rah and His Friends. 

3. Barrie : Peter and Wendy. 

4. Dix : Merry lips. 

5. Dodge : Hans Br inker. 

6. Ewing: Jan of the Wind-Mill; A Flat Iron for a Farthing. 

7. Field : Christmas Tales and Christmas Verse. 

8. Griswold : Deering of Deal. 

g. Goss : A Life of Grant for Boys. 

10. Hasbrouck : The Boy's Parkman. 

11. Hawthorne: Grandfather's Chair. 

12. Herbertson : Heroic Legends. 

13. Hulst: Lndi an Sketches. 

14. Jordan : The Story of Matka : A Tale of the Mist-Islands, 

15. Lang : The Story of Joan of Arc. 

16. Lee : A Quaker Girl of Nantucket 

17. Lucas: Slow Coach. /^ 

18. Moore : Deeds of Dfipng Done by Girls. 

19. NicoLAY : The Boyrs Life of Abraham Lincoln. 

20. Ollivant : Bob, Son of Battle. 

21. Pyle: Otto of the Silver Hand; The Merry Adventures of Robin 


22. Ramee : The N umber g Stove. 

23. Richards : Captain January. 

24. Sea WELL : A Virginia Cavalier. 

25. SouTHEY : The Life of Lord Nelson. 

26. Spyri: Heidi; Heimatlos. 

27. S\vift: Gulliver's Travels (expurgated). 

28. Tappan : In the Days of Queen Victoria. 

29. Thompson-Seton : The Biography of a Grizzly; The Trail of the 

Sandhill Stag; Two Little Savages. 

30. Trowbridge : Cudjo's Cave. 

31. Wiggin: The Birds' Christmas Carol; Polly Oliver's Problem. 

32. Wright: Gray Lady and the Birds. 

256 Community English 

Grade VIII 

A . Titles from which selection for class work may be made. 

1. An anthology of American poems, compiled especially for eighth- 

year use and including numbers such as Bryant's To a Water 
Fowl, Lowell's Yussouf, Lanier's Song of the Chattahoochee, and 
some of the best of Riley and Field, as well as material from Long- 
fellow, Holmes, and Whittier of the type above quoted. 

2. Holmes: Old Ironsides, The Last Leaf, My Aunt, The Height of 

the Ridiculous, Lexington, The Steamboat, The Voiceless, The Boys, 
All Here, Our Banker, The Chambered Nautilus, Album Verses 
(When Eve Had Led Her Lord Away), Contentment, The Deacon's 
Masterpiece, Aunt Tabitha, An Old-Year Song, Dorothy Q, A Ballad 
of the Boston Tea Party, Union and Liberty, Grandmother's Story 
of Bunker Hill, How the Old Horse Won the Bet, The First Fan, My 
Aviary, The Broomstick Train. 

3. Cooper : The Last of the Mohicans. 

4. Scott : The Lay of the Last Minstrel. 

5. Macaulay: H or alius. 

6. Warner : A-Hunting of the Deer, How I Killed a Bear, Camping Out 

(from I71 the Wilderness) . 

7. Hale : The Man Without a Country. 

8. Dickens : Christmas Carol; The Cricket on the Hearth. 

9. Van Dyke : The Story of the Other Wise Man. 

10. Longfellow : Selections from Tales of a Wayside Inn {King Robert 

of Sicily, Parts of the Saga of King Olaf, Ballad of Carmilhan, 
Legend Beautiful, Charlemagne, The Mother's Ghost, Falcon of Ser 
Federigo, Bell of Atri, etc.). 

1 1 . S WEETSER : Ten Boys and Girls from Dickens ; Boys and Girls from 


12. MiMS : The Van Dyke Book. 

13. Kipling : Captains Courageous. 

14. Tennyson : Gareth and Lynette. 

15. Stevenson: Kidnapped. 

16. Whittier: Snow- Bound. 

B. Titles from which selections for individual reading may be made. 

1. BuLLEN : The Cruise of the Cachalot. 

2. Burnett: The Secret Garden. 

3. Cooper: The Deer slayer ; The Pilot. 

4. Clemens : The Prince and the Pauper. 

Books for Study and General Reading 257 

5. Davis : Stories for Boys. 

6. De Amicis : An Italian School Boy's Journal. 

7. Dix : Soldier Rigdale. 

8. DotJBLEDAY : Stories of Invention. 

9. Doyle : Micah Clarke. 

10. Duncan : Adventures of Billy Topsail. 

11. Eastman: An Indian Boyhood. 

12. Eggleston: The Hoosier Schoolmaster. 

13. Fouque: Undine. 

14. Hale : A New England Boyhood. 

15. Halsey: The Old New York Frontier. 

16. Harris : Nights with Uncle Remus. 

17. King : Cadet Days, a story of West Point. 

18. London : The Call of the Wild. 

19. Lang : The Book of Romance. 

20. Laurie, Andre : School Days in Italy; School Days in France (trans- 

lated by Kendall). 

21. Liliencrantz : The Thrall of Lief the Lucky. 

22. Madden: Emmy Lou. 

27,. Montgomery: Anne of Green Gables ; Anne of Avonlea. 

24. Morris : The Sundering Flood. 

25. Lincoln: A Pretty Tory. 

26. Parkman : Montcalm and Wolfe. 

27. Pyle: The Story of King Arthur and His Knights; The Story of 

the Champions of the Round Table; The Story of Sir Launcelot and 
His Companions. 

28. Rice : Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch. 

29. Scott : Rob Roy. 

30. Seaman : Jacqueline of the Carrier Pigeons. 

31. Sharp: A Watcher in the Woods. 

32. Warner: Being a Boy. 

33. Wiggin: Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm. 

Grade IX 
A. Titles from which selections for class work may be made. 

I. Narrative poems such as Cowper's John Gilpin's Ride, Burns's 
Tarn O'Shanter, Scott's Lochinvar, Wordsworth's Michael, 
Byron's The Prisoner of Chillon, Browning's How They Brought 
the Good News from Ghent to Aix, Herve Riel, Rossetti's The White 
Ship, Morris's Atalanta's Race, Lowell's The Courtin'. 

258 Community English 

2. Lyric poems such as Shelley's To a Skylark, Wordsworth's 

Reaper, Browning's Home Thoughts from Abroad, Emerson's 
Concord Hymn, Burns's ^ Man's a Man for a' That, Rossetti's 
Up-Hill, Keats's On First Looking into Chapman's Homer, By- 
ron's On the Castle of Chillon, Tennyson's The Merman, Whit- 
man's O Captain! My Captain! Garland's The Wind in the 
Pines, Poe's To Helen, Beeching's Bicycling Song. 

3. Short stories such as Poe's The Gold Bug, Hawthorne's The Am- 

bitious Guest, Hardy's The Three Strangers, Brown's Farmer 
Eli's Vacation, Wilkins-Freeman's The Revolt of Mother, O. 
Henry's The Chaparral Prince, Davis's Gallegher. 

4. Bates : A Ballad Book. 

5. Hale : Ballads and Ballad Poetry. 

6. Scott : The Lady of the Lake. 

7. Homer : TheOdyssey (Palmer's trans.) ; The Iliad (Bryant's trans, in 


8. Dickens : David Copperfield. 

9. Scott: The Talisman ; Quentin Durward. 

10. Kipling : Kim. 

11. Shakespeare: Julius Caesar. 

12. Franklin: Autobiography. 

13. Informal studies of current literature, plays, photoplays, etc. 
B. Titles from which selections for individual reading may be made. 

1 . Antin : The Promised Land. 

2. Bates : The Story of the Canterbury Pilgrims. 

3. Churchill : The Crisis. 

4. Clemens: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer; The Adventures of 

Huckleberry Finn. 

5. Cooper : The Spy. 

6. Craddock : The Prophet of the Great Smoky Mountains. 

7. Dana : Two Years Before the Mast. 

8. Defoe : Robinson Crusoe. 

9. D eland : Old Chester Tales ; Doctor Lavendar^s People. 

10. Dickens: Oliver Twist; The Old Curiosity Shop. 

11. Doyle: The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. 

12. Fox: The Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come. 

13. Homer : The Iliad (as done into English by Butcher and Lang). 

14. Hughes : Tom Brown's School Days, 

15. Irving: Tales of a Traveler. 

16. Keller : The Story of My Life. 

Books for Study and General Reading 259 

17. Kingsley: Westward Ho! 

18. Kipling : Selections from the Day's Work atid Phantom Rickshaw. 

19. Mitchell : Hugh Wynne. 

20. Montgomery: Tales of Avmtlea. 

21. Marshall: English Literature for Boys and Girls (selections to be 

made by teacher). 

22. ]MooRE : S lories of Temiessee. 

23. Parkman : The Oregon Trail. 

24. Porter: Freckles; Laddie; A Girl of the Limherlost. 

25. Rideing: The Boyhood of Famous Authors. 

26. RoLFE : Shakespeare, the Boy. 

27. Scott: Guy Mannering, Woodstock. 

28. Smith : Caleb West. 

2Q. Stevenson: The Black Arrow. 

30. Stockton : Jolly Fellowship ; Captain Chap. 

31. Thompson-Seton : Wild Animals I Have Knowji. 

32. Vergil: ^neid (in a good translation). 

33. Wallace: Ben Hiir. 

34. Books contained in seventh and eighth year class reading lists but 

not actually read in class. 


Abbreviations, 152; initials, 152; titles, 

Acceptance, speech of, 1861 ; 192-193 
A Cherry-Tree Festival, quotation, 43 
Addresses, on envelopes, 13, 14 
Adjectives, 153 ; comparison of, 155 
Adjustment, letter of, 14, 16 
Adverbs, 153 

Advertisements, 26, 28, 29 
^sop, 119, 123 
Affirmative, 170 

A Japanese Baby, quotation, 42 
Alcott, Louisa M., 176 
America for Me, 136-137 
America the Beautiful, 139-140 
American authors contest, 173-176; 

how to play, 173-174; list of titles 

and authors, 175-176 
Anthology, class, 5 1 
Antonyms, 154 

Applying for a position, 16, 17, 18, 19, 26 
Argumentation. See Debate 
Atlas, 91 
Audubon club, 208-209 

Bates, Katharine Lee, quotation from, 

Bay Psalm Book, 227 
Bennett, H. H., quotation from, 138-139 
Bill, or statement, 107 
Biographical sketches, 79-82, 250 
Bird diary, 223, 225 

Bixby, Mrs., letter from A. Lincohi, 11 
Body of a letter, 12 
Book index, 90 
Book reports, 77-78 
Booklet, 2, 24, 37-51 ; how to make 

booklets, 37, 39, 40, 217-218 
Boy Scouts, 202, 211 

Bread and butter letter, 9 

Breathes There the Man, quotation, 

Brooks, Phillips, letter of greeting, 5; 

quotation from rhymed letter, 216- 

Br>'ant, William Cullen, 9, 175; quota- 
tion from, 193 
Byron, Lord, 221 

Buddy and Waffles, quotation from, loi 
Bulletin board, 115-117; how to use, 

115; filing material displayed, 116 
Burroughs, John, letter of greeting, 3; 

description of, loi ; quoted, 146; 

works, 176 
Business forms, 12 
Business letters, 11 
Business meetings, 108-112 

Cablegram, 23 

Call of the Wild, The, quotation from, 103 

Campaigns, 205-215; Public Health, 

206-208; Protection of Birds, 208-209; 

Thrift, 209-211; Safety First, 211- 

212; Clean Up, 212; Fly Swatting, 

213; Junior Red Cross drive, 123; 

Americanization, 213; Victory Drive 

for better English, 213-215 
Card catalogue, 91 
Chairman of meeting, 109 ; instructions 

for, no 
Charts, 93, 104; how to make, 105; 

subjects for, 105-106 
Check, 107 

Chelsea boy clings to Old Glory, 233 
Choosing a Vocation, 37 ; quotation 

from, 43 
Churchill, Winston, 176 
Circulating library, class, 78 




Civil Service Commission, 6g 

Claim letter, 15 

Class activities, post office, 29 ; book- 
let, 51, 217; sfcrapbook, 51, 56; 
sketch book, 84 ; bank, 107 ; anthol- 
ogy, 51; circulating library, 78; 
museum, 199-203 ; class publication, 
227-239; campaigns, 205-215; class 
play, 119, 123; short poem recital, 
136; games and contests, 148-176; 
business meetings, 108-112 

Clean Up campaign, 212-213 

Clubs, bird, 31, 208-209; corn, 31; 
pig, 31; canning, 31; poultry, 31 

Community civics, subjects based upon, 
48, 49, 50 

Comparison, adjectives and adverbs, 

Complaint, letter of, 15 

Complimentary endings, 9, 12 

Composition writing, 39; specimen 
compositions, 41, 42,43,44; optional 
subjects, 44-50 ; subjects based upon 
history, 31-36, 44-46; upon geog- 
raphy, 48 ; upon literature, 47, 
48 ; upon agriculture, 46 ; upon com- 
munity civics, 48-50; upon house- 
hold arts, 46 ; essay contest, 167 

Compositions, oral, 105, 106, 107, 183- 
198, 199-203; list of subjects, 202-203 

Congressional Directory, 91 

Contests, getting a job, 29 ; memory, 
135; booklet, 51, 148-176; grammar 
baseball, 149-158; spelling, 158-159; 
paragraph archery, 162-166; essay, 
167; prize speaking, 167-169; 
debate, 169-173; American authors, 
173-176; stamp sale, 209 

Conversations, telephone, 177-182 

Coolidge, Calvin, 190 

Cooper, James F., 175 

Correction of proof, 231 

Courtship of Miles Standish, 174, 175 

Current events, 74; current event 
day, no 

Davis, Richard Harding, quotation from, 

Day letter, 22 
Debates, 169-173; definitions, 170; 

how to conduct, 1 70-1 71 ; subject 
for, 1 71 -1 73 

Descriptions, 98 ; how to write, 99-101, 
103; model paragraphs, 101-102, 
103-104; subjects for, 99-100, 103, 
245, 247, 249 

Diaries, 209, 223-22.6; definition, 223; 
extract from, 223; what to do, 224- 
225; subjects for, 225-226; travel 
diary, 225 

Dictation, 30 

Dictionary, use of, 86, 87, 88, 89 

Dictionary guide words, 87 

Dramatization, oral and written, 118- 
133; questions on, 121 ; suggestion 
for. 123-125; subjects for, 131, 
133; better speech plaj% 214; dram- 
atization of literary masterpieces, 
241, 246, 250 

Editorial, 234-235 
Eggleston, Edward, 176 
Electricity, 60 

Elsie Vernier, quotation from, 104 
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 175 
Encyclopedia, 78, 89, 90 
Essay contest, 167 
Evangeline, 24, 173, 174, 241-244 
Executive department, 68 
Exercises in letter writing, 24-36 
Exhibits to accompany short talks, 

Farrar, Canon Frederic William, 4 
Field, Eugene, 176 
Figuresof speech, 136, 242 
Finnemore, John, quotation from, 94 
Fire department, 71 
First Schoolhouses, quotation, 96, 97 
Fox, John, Jr., 176 
Franklin, Benjamin, 20, 175 

Games and contests, 148-176 

Garbage disposal, 70 

Garland, Hamlin, quotation from, 104; 

works, 176 
Gas, 57 

Geography, subjects based upon, 48 
Girl Scouts, 202, 211 
Glass, Carter, letter to pupils, 210, 211 




Government, 67 

Grammar, baseball, 149-158; what to 

do. 149; how to do it, 1 49-1 51 
Greene, Sarah McLean, 176 
Greeting in letters, 1 2 
Griffin and the Minor Canon, quotation 

from, 96 
Group activities, 29, 31, 51 

Hale, Edward Everett, 176 

Harris, Joel Chandler, 176 

Harrison, Henry S., 176 

Harte, Bret, 24, 176 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, quotation from 

101-102, 17s, 254, 255 
Heading in letters, 12 
Health department, 69 
Henley, W. E., quotation from, 139 
Henry, O., 176 
History, subjects based upon, 31-36, 

44, 45, 46 
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, quotation from, 

104, 17s 
Home project in agriculture, 77 
Homonyms, 87 
Hospitals, 64 
House oj Seven Gables, quotation from, 

Household arts, subjects based upon, 46 
Howe, Julia Ward, 176 
Hubbard, Elbert, quotation from, loi 

I Am the Captain of My Soul, quotation 

from, 139 
//, 141, 142 
Illustrated booklets, 2, 24, 37-51, 

Indentation, 99 
Index, book, 90 
Industries, local, 75 
Instruction, letter of, 19 
Introduction, speeches of, 184, 190-191 
Invitation, 8 
Irving, Washington, 24, 175; study of 

Rip Van Winkle, 244-246, 254, 258 
Ivanhoe, 173 

Jackson, Helen Hunt, 175 
Japan, quotation from, 94 
Japanese Books, quotation, 94; par- 
agraph plan, 94, 95 

Johnson, Clifton, quoted, 97 
Judicial Department, 73 

Keller, Helen, 176 

Key, Francis Scott 175 

King Frederick and the Page, quotation. 

121. 122 
King of the Golden River, The, quotation 

from, 102 
Kingsley, Charles. 6 
Kipling, Rudyard, quotation from, 

141-142, 218 

Lamb, Charles, 254 

Lantern slides, 238-239, 241 

Lee, Robert E. quotation from 195 

Legislative department, 68 

Letter writing, value, i : how to write 
correct letters, 2, 3, 4; personal let- 
ters, 2, 3; greeting, 3, 5; letter with 
gift, 5 ; thanks, 7 ; invitation 8 ; com- 
pUmentarj^ endings, 9, 1 2 ; letter to 
hostess (bread and butter), 9; sym- 
pathy, 10, 11; business letters, 11; 
form of, 12; address, 12, 14; head- 
ing, 12, 14; greeting, 12; body, 12; 
signature, 12; superscription, 12; 
examples of, 13 ; specimen letters, 
complaint, 14; adjustment, 14, 16; 
receipt, 15; order, 14; claim, 15: 
application, 16, 17, 18, 19; instruc- 
tion, letter of, 19; telegrams, 21; 
day letter, 22; night letter, 23; 
dictation, 30; practice exercises in 
letter v/riting, 24-36; rhymed 
letters, 216-219 

Library, public, 63 

Lincoln, Abraham, letter to Mrs. Bixby, 
II, 175; quotation from, 194-195, 

Lincoln, Joseph C, quotation from, 98 

Lists of spelling words, 160-162; sub- 
jects for oral compositions, 202-203 ', 
Subjects for diaries, 225-226; books 
for reading and study, 254-259 

Literature, composition subjects based 
upon, 47, 48 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, quotations from, 
190, 193-194 



London, Jack, quotation from, 103 ; 

works, 176 
Longfellow, Henry W., 5, 6, 174, 175, 

220, 221; study of Evangeline, 241- 

244 ; study of The Courtship of Miles 

Standish, 246-249, 254 
Loss and Recovery of a Horse, quotation, 

119 ; dramatized, 1 20-1 21 
Lowell, Abbott Lawrence, 190; quoted, 

Lowell, James Russell, quotation from, 

135-136, 145, 175 

Mabie, Hamilton Wright, 176 

Magazine, class or school. See class 

Making of booklets, 2, 24, 37-51 

Manuscript, preparation of, 230-231 

Margins, in a letter, 14 

Markets, municipal, 66 

Memory contest, 135 

Memory training, 134-147; how to 
memorize, 134-135 ; speaking con- 
test, 167-169; memory storehouse, 

Meter, definition of, 218 

Minutes of the meeting, 109 ; definition, 
hi; appearance of, 111-112; con- 
tents of, 112 

Modern health crusaders, 208 

Moore, Clement C, quotation from, 

Moroso, John A., quotation from, loi 

Motions, how to put, iio-iii 

Motion pictures, 238-239, 241 

Municipal playgrounds, 62 ; markets, 
66; water works, 56; gas, 57; tel- 
ephones, 58; transportation, 58; 
parks, 61 ; library, 63 ; hospital, 64; 
schools, 65 ; government, 67-73 

Museum, class, 199-203 

Narration, news stories, 232-234, 238, 

244, 247, 248, 251, 252-253 
Negative of question, 170 
News items, 230, 232-234 
Night letter, 23 
Notebooks, 113-114; appearance, 113; 

contents of, 114, 214, 241 
Noyes, Alfred, quotation from, 220 

Old Time Schools and School Books, 

quotation from, 97 
Optional composition subjects, 44-50 
Oral reports, 54-84 
Orderly school, quotation, 96 
Oregon Trail, quotation iroox, 102 

Paragraph study, 14, 93-99; plan, 94, 
95 ; diagram, 95 ; paragraph writ- 
ing, 99-101, 105-106; archery con- 
test, 162-166; description para- 
graphs, 101-102 ; subjects, 103, 106, 

Parkman, Francis, quotation from, 102, 

Parks, 61 

Parliamentary usage, 1 08-1 12 

Parts of speech, 151 

Patsy's Home Again, 234 

Pau, 6, 7 

Payne, John Howard, 175 

Personal interviews, 75 

Pictures, John Burroughs, frontispiece, 
Gathering Material for a Report, 54 ; 
The School Library, 86 ; Dramatizing 
Hiawatha, 132 ; The Short Speech, 187 

Pied Piper of Hamelin, 1 73 

Plan for biographical sketch, 81 ; for 
historical sketch, 82 

Playgrounds, 62 

Play writing, 118-133; questions on, 
121; how to write, 123, 124, 125; 
subjects for plays, 131, 133 

Plural forms, 154-155. i57 

Poe, Edgar Allan, 175 

Police department, 70 

Point of view, 98, 99 ; definition, 102 

Post oflSce, class, 29, 49 

Postal telegraph, 22 

Posters and charts, 93-107 ; how to 
make a poster, 98 ; poster of a build- 
ing, 102 ; posters for campaigns, 206, 
208, 211, 213 

Practice list of spelling words, 160-162; 
list of American authors, 175-176 

Preparation of manuscript, 230-231 

Presentation, speech of, 185, 191-192 

Printing press, school, 236-239 ; prod- 
ucts, 236; suggestions, 238; sub- 
jects for study,238-239 




Prize speaking contest, 167-169 

Proof, correction of, 231 

Protection of birds, 208-209 

Publication, class, 227-239; what to 
do, 228-229; writing news items, 
230 ; preparation of manuscript, 230- 
2m; correction of proof, 231; speci- 
men news stories, 231-234; model 
editorial, 234-236 

Public health campaign, 206-208; 
what to do, 206-207 

Public service department, 70 ; gar- 
bage disposal, 70; street cleaning, 
71; fire department, 71 ; city streets, 

Public utilities reports, 54-74 

Punctuation, 157 

Quaker Poet, 7 

Questions for grammar review, 151-158 

Quotations to be memorized, 143-147 

Receipt, 107 

Red Cross, 205, 211, 213 

Reference books, how to use, 85-92 ; 
World Almanac, 92 ; Congressional 
Directory, 91 ; table of contents, 90; 
Who's Who, 91 ; general magazine 
index, 90; book index, 90; diction- 
ary, 87, 88, 89; encyclopedia, 89, 90; 
gazetteer, 90; atlas, 91; card cata- 
logue, 91 ; dictionary of quotations, 

Refutation, 171 
Reports, 20, 54-74; current events, 74; 

industries, 75 ; personal interview, 75 ; 

shop work or manual training, 76 ; 

home project in agriculture, 77 ; 

book report, 77-78; biographical 

sketch, 79-82 ; historical sketch, 

Rhymes. See Verse making 
Rhythm, definition of, 218; 221, 247 
Riley, James Whitcomb, 176, 220 
Rip Van Winkle, 244-246 
Robert's Rules of Order, 112 
Rock Slide in Cave of Winds, 232 
Roosevelt, Theodore, 24; works, 176; 

quoted, 192 
Ruskin, John, quotation from, 102 

Safety first campaign, 21 1-2 12 

School gardens, 49, 50 

School paper, 207, 227-239; what to 
do, 228-230; news items, 230 

School printing press, 236-239; prod- 
ucts of press, 236; suggestions for 
use of, 238; subjects for study, 238 

School song, 221-222 

Schools, public, 65 

Scott, Sir Walter, quotation from, 137- 
138 ; study of The Lady of the Lake, 

Scrapbooks, 51, 56 

Secretary of meeting, 109-110; instruc- 
tions for. III 

Selections for memorizing, 135-147 

Sentences, 151; subject and predicate, 
153; declarative, 153, 157; topic 
sentence, 97, 163-164 

Shavings, quotation from, 98 

Sherwood, Margaret, quotation from, 

Shopwork reports, 76 

Short poem recital, 136 

Short speech, 183-198; introduction, 
184, 190-191, 249; presentation, 185, 
191-192; acceptance, 186, 192-193; 
response to a toast, 186, 196-197 ; 
announcement, 188; for special 
occasions, 188, 197-198; welcome 
189,193-194; farewell, 194,195,196; 
to accompany exhibit in museum, 

Sketch book, class, 84 

Slogans, 206, 211, 213 

Smith, F. Hopkinson, 176 

Song of the Middle Border, quotation, 104 

Specimen compositions, 41, 42, 43, 44 

Spelling contests, 158-159 

Spelling lists, 160-162 

Stamp sale contest, 209 

Standish, Miles, 24 

Stevenson, R. L., 219 

Stockton, Frank R., quotation from, 96; 
works, 176 

Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 175 

Street advertising, 49 

Streets, city, 72 

Study of a literary masterpiece, 240- 
259; general instructions, 240-241; 



Evangeline, 241-244; Rip Van 
Winkle, 244-246; The Courtship oj 
Miles Standish, 246-249; The Lady 
of the Lake, 249-253 ; books for read- 
ing and study, 254-259 

Subjects for debate, 1 71-173 

Sumner, Charles, quotation from, 141 

Sympathy, letter of, 10, 11 

Synonyms, 87, 154 

Table of contents, 90 

Tarkington, Booth, 24; works, 176 

Telegrams, 21 

Telephone, 58; use of telephone direc- 
tory, 89; conversations, 177-182; 
assignments, 179-182 

Tennyson, Alfred, 4, 220 

Thanatopsis, 8 

Thank You letter, 7 

The Capture of Quebec, quotation, 
125-126; dramatized, 1 26-131 

The Courtship of Miles Standish, 246-249 

The Flag Goes By, quotation from, 138- 

The House-Dog and the Wolf, quotation 

from, 122-123 
The Lady of the Lake, 249-253 
The Lip-Lazy American, an editorial, 

The National Flag, quotation from, 141 
The Sugar Exhibit, a short talk, 203 
The Worn Doorstep, quotation from, 104 
Thoreau, Henry David, 175 
Thrift campaign, 209, 210, 211 
Toast, 186, 196-197; how to respond 

to a, 187-188 
Topic sentence, 97, 163-164 
Transportation, 58 
Travel diary, 225 
Travel letter, 6 
Twain, Mark, 24, 175 

Undertakings, letter writing, 1-36; 
booklets, 37-52; reports, 54-84; 
use of reference books, 85-92 ; post- 
ers and charts, 93-107; class par- 
liamentary usage, 108-112; note- 
books, 113-114; bulletin board, 
115-117; dramatization, 118-133; 
memory training, 134-147 ; games 

and contests, 148-176; telephone 
conversations, 177-182; the short 
speech, 183-198; the class mu- 
seum, 199-203; campaigns, 205-215; 
verse-making, 216-222; diaries, 223- 
226; class publication, 227-239; 
study of a literary masterpiece, 240- 
Van Bibber and Others, quotation from, 


Van Dyke, Henry, quotation from, 136- 
137 ; works, 176, 219 

Verbs, active and passive, 154; princi- 
pal parts of, 157 

Verse making, 216-222; models, 216- 
221; what to do, 218; for special 
occasions, 221; rhymed letters, 221; 
invitations, 221; class or school 
song, 221-222 ; definition of verse, 218 

Victoria, Queen, 23 . 

Victory drive for better English, 213-215 

Vision of Sir Launfal, quotation from, 

Vocation, choosing a, 37, 39, 40, 43 

Wallace, Lew, 176 

Waller, Mary E., 176 

Washington, George, 19 

Water Babies, 6 

Water works, 56 

Western Union, 21 

Westward Ho ! 6 

White, William Allen, quotation from, 

Whitman, Walt, 175 

Whittier, John G., 4, 7, 8, 175, 254, 256 
Who's Who, 91 
Why a Baby Elephant Was Spanked, 

quotation, 41 
Wiggin, Kate Douglas, 176 
Wister, Owen, 176 

Wolfe, James, dramatization, 1 26-1 31 
World Almanac, 85, 92 
Word contests, 88, 89 
Word lists, new, 89; study of words, 

Written reports, 54-84 

Youth's Companion, 14, 15, 16